Project description:Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing decreased pH over vast expanses of the ocean. This decreasing pH may alter biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen via the microbial process of nitrification, a key process that couples these cycles in the ocean, but which is often sensitive to acidic conditions. Recent reports indicate a decrease in oceanic nitrification rates under experimentally lowered pH. How composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) assemblages respond to decreasing oceanic pH, however, is unknown. We sampled microbes from two different acidification experiments and used a combination of qPCR and functional gene microarrays for the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) to assess how acidification alters the structure of ammonia oxidizer assemblages. We show that despite widely different experimental conditions, acidification consistently altered the community composition of AOB by increasing the relative abundance of taxa related to the Nitrosomonas ureae clade. In one experiment this increase was sufficient to cause an increase in the overall abundance of AOB. There were no systematic shifts in the community structure or abundance of AOA in either experiment. These different responses to acidification underscore the important role of microbial community structure in the resiliency of marine ecosystems. amoA gene diversity from two ocean acidification experiments, Monterey Bay experiment (two time points, ambient and acidified) and Vineyard Sound experiment (ambient and acifidied, with and without nutrients) examined with 2 two-color arrays (Cy3 and Cy5): the universal standard 20-mer oligo is printed to the slide with a 70-mer oligo (an archetype). Environmental DNA sequences (fluoresced with Cy3) within 15% of the 70-mer conjugated to a 20-mer oligo (fluoresced with Cy5) complementary to the universal standard will bind to the oligo probes on the array. Signal is the ratio of Cy3 to Cy5.
Project description:Sequencing the metatranscriptome can provide information about the response of organisms to varying environmental conditions. We present a methodology for obtaining random whole-community mRNA from a complex microbial assemblage using Pyrosequencing. The metatranscriptome had, with minimum contamination by ribosomal RNA, significant coverage of abundant transcripts, and included significantly more potentially novel proteins than in the metagenome. Keywords: metatranscriptome, mesocosm, ocean acidification This experiment is part of a much larger experiment. We have produced 4 454 metatranscriptomic datasets and 6 454 metagenomic datasets. These were derived from 4 samples. The experiment is an ocean acidification mesocosm set up in a Norwegian Fjord in 2006. We suspended 6 bags containing 11,000 L of sea water in a Coastal Fjord and then we bubbled CO2 through three of these bags to simulate ocean acidification conditions in the year 2100. The other three bags were bubbled with air. We then induced a phytoplankton bloom in all six bags and took measurements and performed analyses of phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and physiochemical characteristics over a 22 day period. We took water samples from the peak of the phytoplankton bloom and following the decline of the phytoplankton bloom to analyses using 454 metagenomics and 454 metatranscriptomics. Day 1, High CO2 Bag and Day 1, Present Day Bag, refer to the metatranscriptomes from the peak of the bloom. Day 2, High CO2 Bag and Day 2, Present Day Bag, refer to the metatranscriptomes following the decline of the bloom. Obviously High CO2 refers to the ocean acidification mesocosm and Present Day refers to the control mesocosm. Raw data for both the metagenomic and metatranscriptomic components are available at NCBI's Short Read Archive at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/Studies/SRP000/SRP000101