Project description:Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues.
Project description:Molecular docking analysis of twenty two phytoconstituents from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, against seven targets of obesity like pancreatic lipase, fat and obesity protein (FTO protein), cannabinoid receptor, hormones as ghrelin, leptin and protein as SCH1 and MCH1 is detailed in this data article. Chemical structures of phytoconstituents were downloaded from PubChem and protein structures were retrieved from RCSB protein databank. Docking was performed using FlexX software Lead IT version 2.3.2; Bio Solved IT. Visualization and analysis was done by Schrodinger maestro software. The docking score and interactions with important amino acids were analyzed and compared with marketed drug, orlistat. The findings suggest exploitation of best ligands experimentally to develop novel anti-obesity agent.
Project description:Hibiscus (<i>Hibiscus</i> spp.) are popular ornamental and landscape plants in Hawaii which are susceptible to foliar diseases caused by viruses belonging to the genera <i>Cilevirus</i> and <i>Higrevirus</i> (family <i>Kitaviridae</i>). In this study, a virus infecting <i>H. rosa-sinensis</i> plants displaying foliar symptoms consistent with infection by a kitavirus, including yellow chlorotic blotches with a green perimeter, was characterized. The genome consisted of two RNAs 8.4 and 4.4 kb in length, and was organized most similarly to cileviruses, but with important distinctions. These included the location of the p29 homolog as the 3'-terminal open reading frame (ORF) of RNA2 instead of its typical locus at the 3'-end of RNA1; the absence of a p15 homolog on RNA2 and the adjacent intergenic region which also harbors small putative ORFs of unknown function; and the presence of an ORF encoding a 10 kDa protein at the 3'-terminal end of RNA1 that was also found to be present in the hibiscus green spot virus 2 genome. Spherical particles approximately 55-65 nm in diameter were observed in infected leaf tissue, and viral RNA was detected by reverse-transcription PCR in individual mites collected from symptomatic plants tentatively identified as <i>Brevipalpus yothersi</i>. Although phylogenetic analyses placed this virus between the higrevirus and cilevirus clades, we propose the tentative taxonomic placement of this virus, designated hibiscus yellow blotch virus (HYBV), within the genus <i>Cilevirus</i>.
Project description:The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style-stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l(-1) methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style-stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style-stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to assess antimicrobial effects of naringenin (NRG), luteolin (LUT), myricetin (MCT), and protocatechuic acid (PCA) identified in a Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower against two reference strains and five clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. NRG displayed the most growth inhibitory and bactericidal activities to seven bacterial strains including six strains resistant to one or several antibiotics, azithromycin (MIC, 16-32 mg/L), erythromycin (MIC, 32 mg/L), levofloxacin (MIC, 32 mg/L), and/or metronidazole (24-64 mg/L), followed by LUT and MCT, while PCA showed weak activities toward the strains. These constituents had similar antibacterial activities toward the seven tested strains suggesting that these constituents and the antibiotics do not have a common mechanism of anti-H. pylori activity. NRG, LUT, and MCT resulted in a high percentage of coccoid forms of H. pylori. NRG exhibited the highest anti-biofilm formation activity. MCT produced the strongest inhibition of urease activity followed by LUT and PCA, whereas the activity of NRG was similar to standard inhibitor thiourea. The four constituents had no significant toxicity to human cell lines. A global attempt to decrease utilization of antibiotics justifies the need for further research on H. rosa sinensis derived materials containing NRG, LUT, MCT, and PCA as potential products or lead compounds for the prevention or treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori infection.
Project description:Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.
Project description:<i>Hibiscus taiwanensis</i> S. Y. Hu is an ornamental plant of <i>Hibiscus</i>, native to Taiwan. Here, we reported the complete chloroplast genome of <i>H. taiwanensis</i>. The chloroplast genome of <i>H. taiwanensis</i> was 161,056?bp in length, containing a couple of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,300?bp, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 89,538?bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,918?bp. The complete chloroplast genome annotation revealed a total of 131 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 7 rRNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. The entire GC content was 36.9%. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that <i>H. taiwanensis</i> was closely clustered with <i>H. rosa-sinensis</i> and <i>H. syriacus</i>.
Project description:<i>Camellia sinensis var. sinensis</i> cultivar Tieguanyin (TGY) is an important Oolong tea variety in China. In this study, we reported a complete chloroplast (cp) genome based on the Illumina sequencing technology and combined <i>de novo</i> and reference-guided assembly strategies. The complete cp genome of 'TGY' displayed the regular quadripartite structure: a total of 157,126 bp in length, comprising a large single-copy (LSC, 86,904 bp) region, a small single-copy (SSC, 18,532 bp) region, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 26,095 bp) regions. A lot of 132 predicted genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. The overall GC content is 37.3%. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree involving 18 cp genomes of the <i>Camellia</i> genus revealed a relatively independent event of local domestication among three types of cultivars. The complete cp genome of 'TGY' provides an insight into tea plants for further understanding evolutionary research on tea plants.
Project description:For obtaining the sequence and phylogenetic position of <i>Camellia sinensis</i> cultivar 'Baiye1', the complete chloroplast genome was determined. This chloroplast genome is 156,691?bp in length with overall GC content of 37.3%. It was comprised of a large single-copy (LSC) region of 86,585bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,276bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,083?bp. It contains 87 protein-coding, 8 rRNA, and 35 tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed 'Baiye1' and <i>C. sinensis</i> cv. 'Longjing43' were clustered into a group. These results may contribute to the further understanding of the albino phenotype and genetic evolution.