Project description:Chemokines play an important role in determining cellular composition at inflammatory sites, and as such, influence disease outcome. In this study, we investigated the expression profile and splenic cellular source of various inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The expression of chemokines or their receptors was measured at the gene and protein level by employing real time qPCR and a cytometric bead array assay, respectively. In addition, the cellular source of chemokines and their receptors in the spleen was identified employing gene expression analyses in sequentially selected cell subsets. We identified elevated expression of CXCL10, CXCL9, CXCL8, and decreased CCL2 from VL patients. Further, we found reduced expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3 and CCR2, but increased expression of CCR7 on VL PBMC, compared to endemic healthy controls. Additionally, splenic monocytes were found to be the major source of CXCL10, CXCL9 and CCR2, whereas T cells were the main source of CXCR3 and CCR7. We also report a strong association between plasma IFN-? and CXCL-10, CXCL-9 levels. Enhanced parasite burden positively correlates with increased expression of CXCL10, CXCL9, IFN-? and IL-10. Overall our result indicates that VL patients have an elevated inflammatory chemokine milieu which correlated with disease severity. However, expression of their chemokine receptors was significantly impaired, which may have contributed to reduced frequencies of blood monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood. In contrast, enhanced expression of CCR7 was associated with increased numbers of activated T cells in circulation. These findings highlight the importance of chemokines for recruitment of various cell populations in VL, and the knowledge gained may help in global understandings of the complex interaction between chemokines and pathological processes, and therefore will contribute towards the design of novel chemokine based immunological therapies against VL.
Project description:Inflammation and renal tubular injury are major features of acute kidney injury (AKI). Many cytokines and chemokines are released from injured tubular cells and acts as proinflammatory mediators. However, the role of IL-19 in the pathogenesis of AKI is not defined yet. In bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced and HgCl2-induced AKI animal models, real-time quantitative (RTQ)-PCR showed that the kidneys, livers, and lungs of AKI mice expressed significantly higher IL-19 and its receptors than did sham control mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that IL-19 and its receptors were strongly stained in the kidney, liver, and lung tissue of AKI mice. In vitro, IL-19 upregulated MCP-1, TGF-?1, and IL-19, and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in murine renal tubular epithelial M-1 cells. IL-19 upregulated TNF-? and IL-10 in cultured HepG2 cells, and it increased IL-1? and TNF-? expression in cultured A549 cells. In vivo, after renal IRI or a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2 treatment, IL-20R1-deficient mice (the deficiency blocks IL-19 signaling) showed lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum and less tubular damage than did wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that IL-19 mediates kidney, liver, and lung tissue damage in murine AKI and that blocking IL-19 signaling may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for treating AKI.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a potent angiogenic growth factor. Here, gene expression profiling of FGF2-stimulated microvascular endothelial cells revealed, together with a prominent pro-angiogenic profile, a pro-inflammatory signature characterized by the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokines and their receptors, endothelial cell adhesion molecules and members of the eicosanoid pathway. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated early induction of most of the FGF2-induced, inflammation-related genes. Accordingly, chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and murine Matrigel plug angiogenesis assays demonstrated a significant monocyte/macrophage infiltrate in the areas of FGF2-driven neovascularization. Similar results were obtained when the conditioned medium (CM) of FGF2-stimulated endothelial cells was delivered onto the CAM, suggesting that FGF2-upregulated chemoattractants mediate the inflammatory response. Importantly, FGF2-triggered new blood vessel formation was significantly reduced in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma null mice exhibiting defective leucocyte migration or in clodronate liposome-treated, macrophage-depleted mice. Furthermore, the viral pan-chemokine antagonist M3 inhibited the angiogenic and inflammatory responses induced by the CM of FGF2-stimulated endothelial cells and impaired FGF2-driven neovascularization in the CAM assay. These findings point to inflammatory chemokines as early mediators of FGF2-driven angiogenesis and indicate a non-redundant role for inflammatory cells in the neovascularization process elicited by the growth factor.
Project description:In order to test the effects of metastasis suppressive miR-126/126* on primary tumor microenvironment, we designed a real-time PCR-based mouse cytokine/chemokine array containing 95 cytokines/chemokines and their receptors. Considering the possibility that production of cytokines/chemokines may be dependent on the interactions among different cell types within the tumor mass, we inoculated GFP-labeled 4T1 cells with a control vector or 4T1 cells with pri-miR-126 overexpression into the fat pad of BALB/c mice. 10 days later, we harvested the primary tumors, isolated GFP-positive cancer cells, and analyzed the expression levels of different cytokines/chemokines and their receptors in the cancer cells at the mRNA level using the cytokine array. qPCR gene expression profiling. Equal amount total RNA from each cell line was pooled prior to gene expression analysis.
Project description:Chemotaxis assays are an invaluable tool for studying the biological activity of inflammatory mediators such as CC chemokines, which have been implicated in a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Conventional chemotaxis systems such as the modified Boyden chamber are limited in terms of the data captured given that the assays are analysed at a single time-point. We report the optimisation and validation of a label-free, real-time cell migration assay based on electrical cell impedance to measure chemotaxis of different primary murine macrophage populations in response to a range of CC chemokines and other chemoattractant signalling molecules. We clearly demonstrate key differences in the migratory behavior of different murine macrophage populations and show that this dynamic system measures true macrophage chemotaxis rather than chemokinesis or fugetaxis. We highlight an absolute requirement for G?i signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement as demonstrated by Pertussis toxin and cytochalasin D inhibition. We also studied the chemotaxis of CD14(+) human monocytes and demonstrate distinct chemotactic profiles amongst different monocyte donors to CCL2. This real-time chemotaxis assay will allow a detailed analysis of factors that regulate macrophage responses to chemoattractant cytokines and inflammatory mediators.
Project description:Cytosolic DNA sensors are a subgroup of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and are activated by the abnormal presence of the DNA in the cytosol. Their activation leads to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and can also induce cell death. The presence of cytosolic DNA sensors and inflammatory cytokines in TS/A murine mammary adenocarcinoma and WEHI 164 fibrosarcoma cells was demonstrated using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After electrotransfer of plasmid DNA (pDNA) using two pulse protocols, the upregulation of DNA-depended activator of interferon regulatory factor or Z-DNA binding protein 1 (DAI/ZBP1), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 60 (DDX60) and interferon-inducible protein 204 (p204) mRNAs was observed in both tumor cell lines, but their expression was pulse protocol dependent. A decrease in cell survival was also observed; it was cell type, DNA concentration and pulse protocol dependent. Furthermore, the different protocols of electrotransfer led to different cell death outcomes, necrosis and apoptosis, as indicated by an annexin V and 7AAD assays. The obtained data provide new insights on the presence of cytosolic DNA sensors in tumor cells and the activation of different types of cells death after electrotransfer of pDNA. These observations have important implications on the planning of gene therapy or DNA vaccination protocols.
Project description:The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive gene expression analysis of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human monocytes in order to elucidate molecular aspects of their involvement in the host response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three healthy donors were separated and infected with C. trachomatis elementary bodies serovar K (UW/31/Cx) at a multiplicity of infection of 5:1. Three time points of infection were studied by gene expression analysis using microarray: 4 hours (active infection), 1 day (transition), and 7 days (persistent infection). Expression levels of selected genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Transcripts encoding 10 cytokines, chemokines, and receptors were found to be upregulated exclusively in the early, active phase of the infection as compared to four genes in the late, persistent state of the infection. Apart from receptors, both the level and the number of transcripts encoding inflammatory products decreased with ongoing infection. Four genes (interferon-gamma, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1-alpha, MIP-1-beta, and interleukin-2 receptor-gamma) were constantly expressed over a period of 7 days. The current study provides data on the induction of mRNA encoding cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors in C. trachomatis-infected human monocytes. This pro-inflammatory gene expression profile of the monocytic host cell showed several differences between active and persistent chlamydial infections.