Project description:We report here the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain AM-2504, a microorganism producing a broad range of biotechnologically relevant molecules. The comparative analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence allowed the assignment of this strain to the Streptomyces kasugaensis species, thus fostering functional characterization of the secondary metabolites produced by this microorganism.
Project description:Streptomyces lividans ZX1 has become a preferred host for DNA cloning in Streptomyces species over its progenitor, the wild-type strain 66 (stock number 1326 from the John Innes Center collection), especially when stable DNA is crucial for in vitro electrophoresis, because DNA from strain 66 contains a novel modification that makes it sensitive to oxidative double-strand cleavage during electrophoresis. Detailed analysis of this modification-deficient mutant (ZX1) revealed that it has several additional phenotypic traits associated with a chromosomal deletion of ca. 90 kb, which was cloned and mapped by using a cosmid library. Comparative sequence analysis of two clones containing the left and right deletion ends originating from strain 66 and one clone with the deletion and fused sequence cloned from strain ZX1 revealed a perfect 15-bp direct repeat, which may have mediated deletion and fusion to yield strain ZX1 by site-specific recombination. Analysis of AseI linking clones in the deleted region in relation to the published AseI map of strain ZX1 yielded a complete AseI map for the S. lividans 66 genome, on which the relative positions of a cloned phage phiHAU3 resistance (phiHAU3r) gene and the dnd gene cluster were precisely localized. Comparison of S. lividans ZX1 and its progenitor 66, as well as the sequenced genome of its close relative, Streptomyces coelicolor M145, reveals that the ca. 90-kb deletion in strain ZX1 may have originated from an insertion from an unknown source.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces specialis type strain GW41-1564, which was isolated from soil. This 5.87-Mb genome exhibits a high G+C content of 72.72% and contains 5,486 protein-coding genes.
Project description:Here, we describe the genome of Streptomyces morookaense DSM 40503, an 8-azaguanine-producing strain. The genome is the basis for future study and presents an underexplored taxonomy and biosynthetic potential, which expands our understanding of the diversity of microorganisms that produce nitrogen heterocyclic compounds.
Project description:Streptococcus thermophilus DSM 20167T showed autolytic behavior when cultured in lactose- and sucrose-limited conditions. The amount of cell lysis induced was inversely related to the energetic status of the cells, as demonstrated by exposing cells to membrane-uncoupling and glycolysis inhibitors. Genome sequence analysis of strain DSM 20617T revealed the presence of a pac-type temperate bacteriophage, designated ?20617, whose genomic organization and structure resemble those of temperate streptococcal bacteriophages. The prophage integrated at the 3'-end of the gene encoding the glycolytic enzyme enolase (eno), between eno and the lipoteichoic acid synthase-encoding gene ltaS, affecting their transcription. Comparative experiments conducted on the wild-type strain and a phage-cured derivative strain revealed that the cell-wall integrity of the lysogenic strain was compromised even in the absence of detectable cell lysis. More importantly, adhesion to solid surfaces and heat resistance were significantly higher in the lysogenic strain than in the phage-cured derivative. The characterization of the phenotype of a lysogenic S. thermophilus and its phage-cured derivative is relevant to understanding the ecological constraints that drive the stable association between a temperate phage and its bacterial host.
Project description:Comparative genome analysis revealed seven uncharacterized genes, sven0909 to sven0915, adjacent to the previously identified chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster (sven0916-sven0928) of Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 10712 that was absent in a closely related Streptomyces strain that does not produce chloramphenicol. Transcriptional analysis suggested that three of these genes might be involved in chloramphenicol production, a prediction confirmed by the construction of deletion mutants. These three genes encode a cluster-associated transcriptional activator (Sven0913), a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sven0914), and a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (Sven0915). Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the presence of a previously undetected gene, sven0925, embedded within the chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster that appears to encode an acyl carrier protein, bringing the number of new genes likely to be involved in chloramphenicol production to four. Microarray experiments and synteny comparisons also suggest that sven0929 is part of the biosynthetic gene cluster. This has allowed us to propose an updated and revised version of the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway.
Project description:Strains of Eggerthella lenta are capable of oxidation-reduction reactions capable of oxidizing and epimerizing bile acid hydroxyl groups. Several genes encoding these enzymes, known as hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) have yet to be identified. It is also uncertain whether the products of E. lenta bile acid metabolism are further metabolized by other members of the gut microbiota. We characterized a novel human fecal isolate identified as E. lenta strain C592. The complete genome of E. lenta strain C592 was sequenced and comparative genomics with the type strain (DSM 2243) revealed high conservation, but some notable differences. E. lenta strain C592 falls into group III, possessing 3α, 3β, 7α, and 12α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) activity, as determined by mass spectrometry of thin layer chromatography (TLC) separated metabolites of primary and secondary bile acids. Incubation of E. lenta oxo-bile acid and iso-bile acid metabolites with whole-cells of the high-activity bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacterium, Clostridium scindens VPI 12708, resulted in minimal conversion of oxo-derivatives to lithocholic acid (LCA). Further, Iso-chenodeoxycholic acid (iso-CDCA; 3β,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) was not metabolized by C. scindens. We then located a gene encoding a novel 12α-HSDH in E. lenta DSM 2243, also encoded by strain C592, and the recombinant purified enzyme was characterized and substrate-specificity determined. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding an Rnf complex (rnfABCDEG), an energy conserving hydrogenase (echABCDEF) complex, as well as what appears to be a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Our prediction that by changing the gas atmosphere from nitrogen to hydrogen, bile acid oxidation would be inhibited, was confirmed. These results suggest that E. lenta is an important bile acid metabolizing gut microbe and that the gas atmosphere may be an important and overlooked regulator of bile acid metabolism in the gut.
Project description:Pseudouridimycin (PUM), a selective inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerase has been previously detected in microbial-extracts of two strains of Streptomyces species (strain ID38640 and ID38673). Here, we isolated PUM and its deoxygenated analogue desoxy-pseudouridimycin (dPUM) from Streptomyces albus DSM 40763, previously reported to produce the metabolite strepturidin (STU). The isolated compounds were characterized by HRMS and spectroscopic techniques and they selectively inhibited transcription by bacterial RNA polymerase as previously reported for PUM. In contrast, STU could not be detected in the cultures of S. albus DSM 40763. As the reported characteristics reported for STU are almost identical with that of PUM, the existence of STU was questioned. We further sequenced the genome of S. albus DSM 40763 and identified a gene cluster that contains orthologs of all PUM biosynthesis enzymes but lacks the enzymes that would conceivably allow biosynthesis of STU as an additional product.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acidophilic members of the genus Streptomyces can be a good source for novel secondary metabolites and degradative enzymes of biopolymers. In this study, a genome-based approach on Streptomyces yeochonensis CN732, a representative neutrotolerant acidophilic streptomycete, was employed to examine the biosynthetic as well as enzymatic potential, and also presence of any genetic tools for adaptation in acidic environment. RESULTS:A high quality draft genome (7.8?Mb) of S. yeochonensis CN732 was obtained with a G?+?C content of 73.53% and 6549 protein coding genes. The in silico analysis predicted presence of multiple biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which showed similarity with those for antimicrobial, anticancer or antiparasitic compounds. However, the low levels of similarity with known BGCs for most cases suggested novelty of the metabolites from those predicted gene clusters. The production of various novel metabolites was also confirmed from the combined high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Through comparative genome analysis with related Streptomyces species, genes specific to strain CN732 and also those specific to neutrotolerant acidophilic species could be identified, which showed that genes for metabolism in diverse environment were enriched among acidophilic species. In addition, the presence of strain specific genes for carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZyme) along with many other singletons indicated uniqueness of the genetic makeup of strain CN732. The presence of cysteine transpeptidases (sortases) among the BGCs was also observed from this study, which implies their putative roles in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS:This study highlights the bioactive potential of strain CN732, an acidophilic streptomycete with regard to secondary metabolite production and biodegradation potential using genomics based approach. The comparative genome analysis revealed genes specific to CN732 and also those among acidophilic species, which could give some insights into the adaptation of microbial life in acidic environment.