Project description:A better understanding of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in bacteria relies on studying their transcriptome. RNA sequencing methods are used not only to assess RNA abundance but also the exact boundaries of primary and processed transcripts. Here, we developed a method, called identification of specific cleavage position (ISCP), which enables the identification of direct endoribonuclease targets in vivo by comparing the 5? and 3? ends of processed transcripts between wild type and RNase deficient strains. To demonstrate the ISCP method, we used as a model the double-stranded specific RNase III in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We mapped 92 specific cleavage positions (SCPs) among which, 48 were previously described and 44 are new, with the characteristic 2 nucleotides 3? overhang of RNase III. Most SCPs were located in untranslated regions of RNAs. We screened for RNase III targets using transcriptomic differential expression analysis (DEA) and compared those with the RNase III targets identified using the ISCP method. Our study shows that in S. pyogenes, under standard growth conditions, RNase III has a limited impact both on antisense transcripts and on global gene expression with the expression of most of the affected genes being downregulated in an RNase III deletion mutant.
Project description:Control over mRNA stability is an essential part of gene regulation that involves both endo- and exoribonucleases. RNase Y is a recently identified endoribonuclease in Gram-positive bacteria, and an RNase Y ortholog has been identified in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]). In this study, we used microarray and Northern blot analyses to determine the S. pyogenes mRNA half-life of the transcriptome and to understand the role of RNase Y in global mRNA degradation and processing. We demonstrated that S. pyogenes has an unusually high mRNA turnover rate, with median and mean half-lives of 0.88 min and 1.26 min, respectively. A mutation of the RNase Y-encoding gene (rny) led to a 2-fold increase in overall mRNA stability. RNase Y was also found to play a significant role in the mRNA processing of virulence-associated genes as well as in the rapid degradation of rnpB read-through transcripts. From these results, we conclude that RNase Y is a pleiotropic regulator required for mRNA stability, mRNA processing, and removal of read-through transcripts in S. pyogenes.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus, GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a variety of infectious diseases and sequelae. Recent studies showed virulence factor expression was controlled at multiple levels, including the post-transcriptional regulation. In this study, we examined the global half-lives of S. pyogenes mRNAs and explored the role RNase Y played in mRNA metabolism with microarray analysis. key word: genetic modification Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 wild-type cells and ?rny strains were grown in C-medium until late exponential phase. Rifampicin was added to the cell culture and samples were collected before and after rifampicin addition. The transcriptional profile of the whole genome before and after rifampicin addition was examined with microarray. Please note that mRNA decay assay resulted in considerable variations in the datasets. Samples were taken after rifampicin addition and subsequent incubation for different time intervals. During that time no new RNA is produced and the remaining RNA is degraded to various degrees.
Project description:mRNA decay plays an essential role in the control of gene expression in bacteria. Exoribonucleases (exoRNases), which trim transcripts starting from the 5' or 3' end, are particularly important to fully degrade unwanted transcripts and renew the pool of nucleotides available in the cell. While recent techniques have allowed genome-wide identification of ribonuclease (RNase) targets in bacteria in vivo, none of the 3'-to-5' exoRNase targetomes (i.e., global processing sites) have been studied so far. Here, we report the targetomes of YhaM, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and RNase R of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes We determined that YhaM is an unspecific enzyme that trims a few nucleotides and targets the majority of transcript ends, generated either by transcription termination or by endonucleolytic activity. The molecular determinants for YhaM-limited processivity are yet to be deciphered. We showed that PNPase clears the cell from mRNA decay fragments produced by endoribonucleases (endoRNases) and is the major 3'-to-5' exoRNase for RNA turnover in S. pyogenes In particular, PNPase is responsible for the degradation of regulatory elements from 5' untranslated regions. However, we observed little RNase R activity in standard culture conditions. Overall, our study sheds light on the very distinct features of S. pyogenes 3'-to-5' exoRNases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To produce an effective recombinant streptokinase (rSK) from pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes isolate in yeast, and evaluate its potential for thrombolytic therapy. METHODS: This study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013 at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Throat swabs collected from 45 pharyngitis patients in Asser Central Hospital, Abha, KSA were used to isolate Streptococcus pyogenes. The bacterial DNA was used for amplification of the streptokinase gene (1200 bp). The gene was cloned and in vitro transcribed in an eukaryotic expression vector that was transformed into yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168, and the rSK protein was purified and tested for its thrombolytic activity. RESULTS: The Streptococcus pyogenes strain was isolated and its DNA nucleotide sequence revealed similarity to other Streptococcus pyogenes in the Gene bank. Sequencing of the amplified gene based on DNA nucleotide sequence revealed a SK gene closely related to other SK genes in the Gene bank. However, based on deduced amino acids sequence, the gene formed a separate cluster different from clusters formed by other examined genes, suggesting a new bacterial isolate and accordingly a new gene. The purified protein showed 82% clot lysis compared to a commercial SK (81%) at an enzyme concentration of 2000 U/ml. CONCLUSION: The present yeast rSK showed similar thrombolytic activity in vitro as that of a commercial SK, suggesting its potential for thrombolytic therapy and large scale production.
Project description:The 1,852,442-bp sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen, has been determined and contains 1,752 predicted protein-encoding genes. Approximately one-third of these genes have no identifiable function, with the remainder falling into previously characterized categories of known microbial function. Consistent with the observation that S. pyogenes is responsible for a wider variety of human disease than any other bacterial species, more than 40 putative virulence-associated genes have been identified. Additional genes have been identified that encode proteins likely associated with microbial "molecular mimicry" of host characteristics and involved in rheumatic fever or acute glomerulonephritis. The complete or partial sequence of four different bacteriophage genomes is also present, with each containing genes for one or more previously undiscovered superantigen-like proteins. These prophage-associated genes encode at least six potential virulence factors, emphasizing the importance of bacteriophages in horizontal gene transfer and a possible mechanism for generating new strains with increased pathogenic potential.