Project description:The contribution of lineage identity and differentiation state to malignant transformation is controversial. We have previously shown that adult neural stem and early progenitor cells give origin to glioblastoma. Here we systematically assessed the tumor-initiating potential of adult neural populations at various stages of lineage progression. Cell type-specific tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgenes were used to target glioblastoma-relevant tumor suppressors Nf1, Trp53 and Pten in late-stage neuronal progenitors, neuroblasts and differentiated neurons. Mutant mice showed cellular and molecular defects demonstrating the impact of tumor suppressor loss, with mutant neurons being the most resistant to early changes associated with tumor development. However, we observed no evidence of glioma formation. These studies show that increasing lineage restriction is accompanied by decreasing susceptibility to malignant transformation, indicating a glioblastoma cell-of-origin hierarchy in which stem cells sit at the apex and differentiated cell types are least susceptible to tumorigenesis.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo.
Project description:Tumor-immune crosstalk within the tumor microenvironment (TME) occurs at all stages of tumorigenesis. Tumor-associated M2 macrophages play a central role in tumor development, but the molecular underpinnings have not been fully elucidated. We demonstrated that M2 macrophages produce interleukin 1? (IL-1?), which activates phosphorylation of the glycolytic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2) at threonine 10 (GPD2 pT10) through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated activation of protein kinase-delta (PKC?) in glioma cells. GPD2 pT10 enhanced its substrate affinity and increased the catalytic rate of glycolysis in glioma cells. Inhibiting PKC? or GPD2 pT10 in glioma cells or blocking IL-1? generated by macrophages attenuated the glycolytic rate and proliferation of glioma cells. Furthermore, human glioblastoma tumor GPD2 pT10 levels were positively correlated with tumor p-PKC? and IL-1? levels as well as intratumoral macrophage recruitment, tumor grade and human glioblastoma patient survival. These results reveal a novel tumorigenic role for M2 macrophages in the TME. In addition, these findings suggest possible treatment strategies for glioma patients through blockade of cytokine crosstalk between M2 macrophages and glioma cells.
Project description:Interactions between tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical for glioblastoma progression. The TAMs represent up to 30% of the glioblastoma mass. The role of TAMs in tumor progression and in the mechanisms underlying tumor growth remain unclear. Using an in vitro model resembling the crosstalk between macrophages and glioblastoma cells, we show that glioblastoma-derived exosomes (GBex) reprogram M1 (mediate pro-inflammatory function) and M2 (mediate anti-inflammatory function) macrophages, converting M1 into TAMs and augmenting pro-tumor functions of M2 macrophages. In turn, these GBex-reprogrammed TAMs, produce exosomes decorated by immunosuppressive and tumor-growth promoting proteins. TAM-derived exosomes disseminate these proteins in the tumor microenvironment (TME) promoting tumor cell migration and proliferation. Mechanisms underlying the promotion of glioblastoma growth involved Arginase-1+ exosomes produced by the reprogrammed TAMs. A selective Arginase-1 inhibitor, nor-NOHA reversed growth-promoting effects of Arginase-1 carried by TAM-derived exosomes. The data suggest that GBex-reprogrammed Arginase-1+ TAMs emerge as a major source of exosomes promoting tumor growth and as a potential therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor in adults. Glioblastoma is usually fatal 12-15 months after diagnosis and the current possibilities in therapy are mostly only palliative. Therefore, new forms of diagnosis and therapy are urgently needed. Since tumor-associated macrophages are key players in tumor progression and survival there is large potential in investigating their immunological characteristics in glioblastoma patients. Recent evidence shows the expression of variable immunoglobulins and TCRαβ in subpopulations of monocytes, in vitro polarized macrophages and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. We set out to investigate the immunoglobulin sequences of circulating monocytes and tumor-associated macrophages from glioblastoma patients to evaluate their potential as novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets. RESULTS:We routinely find consistent expression of immunoglobulins in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and circulating monocytes from all glioblastoma patients analyzed in this study. However, the immunoglobulin repertoires of circulating monocytes and TAM are generally more restricted compared to B cells. Furthermore, the immunoglobulin expression in the macrophage populations negatively correlates with the tumor volume. Interestingly, the comparison of somatic mutations, V-chain usage, CDR3-length and the distribution of used heavy chain genes on the locus of chromosome 14 of the immunoglobulins from myeloid to B cells revealed virtually no differences. CONCLUSIONS:The investigation of the immunoglobulin repertoires from TAM and circulating monocytes in glioblastoma-patients revealed a negative correlation to the tumor volume, which could not be detected in the immunoglobulin repertoires of the patients' B lymphocytes. Furthermore, the immunoglobulin repertoires of monocytes were more diverse than the repertoires of the macrophages in the tumor microenvironment from the same patients suggesting a tumor-specific immune response which could be advantageous for the use as diagnostic or therapeutic target.
Project description:Brain tumors are dynamic complex ecosystems with multiple cell types. To model the brain tumor microenvironment in a reproducible and scalable system, we developed a rapid three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting method to construct clinically relevant biomimetic tissue models. In recurrent glioblastoma, macrophages/microglia prominently contribute to the tumor mass. To parse the function of macrophages in 3D, we compared the growth of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) alone or with astrocytes and neural precursor cells in a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel, with or without macrophage. Bioprinted constructs integrating macrophage recapitulate patient-derived transcriptional profiles predictive of patient survival, maintenance of stemness, invasion, and drug resistance. Whole-genome CRISPR screening with bioprinted complex systems identified unique molecular dependencies in GSCs, relative to sphere culture. Multicellular bioprinted models serve as a scalable and physiologic platform to interrogate drug sensitivity, cellular crosstalk, invasion, context-specific functional dependencies, as well as immunologic interactions in a species-matched neural environment.
Project description:Glioblastoma cells produce and release high amounts of glutamate into the extracellular milieu and subsequently can trigger seizure in patients. Tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAMs), consisting of both parenchymal microglia and monocytes-derived macrophages (MDMs) recruited from the blood, are known to populate up to 1/3 of the glioblastoma tumor environment and exhibit an alternative, tumor-promoting and supporting phenotype. However, it is unknown how TAMs respond to the excess extracellular glutamate in the glioblastoma microenvironment. We investigated the expressions of genes related to glutamate transport and metabolism in human TAMs freshly isolated from glioblastoma resections. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed (i) significant increases in the expressions of GRIA2 (GluA2 or AMPA receptor 2), SLC1A2 (EAAT2), SLC1A3 (EAAT1), (ii) a near-significant decrease in the expression of SLC7A11 (cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT) and (iii) a remarkable increase in GLUL expression (glutamine synthetase) in these cells compared to adult primary human microglia. TAMs co-cultured with glioblastoma cells also exhibited a similar glutamatergic profile as freshly isolated TAMs except for a slight increase in SLC7A11 expression. We next analyzed these genes expressions in cultured human MDMs derived from peripheral blood monocytes for comparison. In contrast, MDMs co-cultured with glioblastoma cells compared to MDMs co-cultured with normal astrocytes exhibited decreased expressions in the tested genes except for GLUL. This is the first study to demonstrate transcriptional changes in glutamatergic signaling of TAMs in a glioblastoma microenvironment, and the findings here suggest that TAMs and MDMs might potentially elicit different cellular responses in the presence of excess extracellular glutamate.
Project description:Macrophages are important mediators of tumor progression and their function is broadly influenced by different microenvironmental stimuli. To understand the molecular basis of the tumor-supporting role of macrophages in aggressive breast cancer we co-cultured human peripheral monocytes with two breast cancer cell lines representing distinct aggressive cellular phenotype and transcriptionally profiled the changes occurring in both cells during in vitro activated crosstalk. Here we provide a detailed description of the experimental design, sample identity and analysis of the Illumina RNA-Seq data, which have been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE75130.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a complex disease with extensive molecular and transcriptional heterogeneity. GBM can be subcategorized into four distinct subtypes; tumors that shift towards the mesenchymal phenotype upon recurrence are generally associated with treatment resistance, unfavorable prognosis, and the infiltration of pro-tumorigenic macrophages. RESULTS:We explore the transcriptional regulatory networks of mesenchymal-associated tumor-associated macrophages (MA-TAMs), which drive the malignant phenotypic state of GBM, and identify macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) as the most highly differentially expressed gene. MARCOhigh TAMs induce a phenotypic shift towards mesenchymal cellular state of glioma stem cells, promoting both invasive and proliferative activities, as well as therapeutic resistance to irradiation. MARCOhigh TAMs also significantly accelerate tumor engraftment and growth in vivo. Moreover, both MA-TAM master regulators and their target genes are significantly correlated with poor clinical outcomes and are often associated with genomic aberrations in neurofibromin 1 (NF1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases/mammalian target of rapamycin/Akt pathway (PI3K-mTOR-AKT)-related genes. We further demonstrate the origination of MA-TAMs from peripheral blood, as well as their potential association with tumor-induced polarization states and immunosuppressive environments. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our study characterizes the global transcriptional profile of TAMs driving mesenchymal GBM pathogenesis, providing potential therapeutic targets for improving the effectiveness of GBM immunotherapy.