Project description:Summary:Whole exome sequencing (WES) is widely utilized both in translational cancer genomics studies and in the setting of precision medicine. Stratification of individual's ethnicity is fundamental for the correct interpretation of personal genomic variation impact. We implemented EthSEQ to provide reliable and rapid ethnicity annotation from whole exome sequencing individual's data, validated it on 1000 Genome Project and TCGA data (2700 samples) demonstrating high precision, and finally assessed computational performances compared to other tools. EthSEQ can be integrated into any WES based processing pipeline and exploits multi-core capabilities. Availability and Implementation:R package available at github.com/aromanel/EthSEQ and CRAN repository. Contact:email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org. Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Genomic technologies, such as whole-exome sequencing, are a powerful tool in genetic research. Such testing yields a great deal of incidental medical information, or medical information not related to the primary research target. We describe the management of incidental medical information derived from whole-exome sequencing in the research context. We performed whole-exome sequencing on a monozygotic twin pair in which only 1 child was affected with congenital anomalies and applied an institutional review board-approved algorithm to determine what genetic information would be returned. Whole-exome sequencing identified 79525 genetic variants in the twins. Here, we focus on novel variants. After filtering artifacts and excluding known single nucleotide polymorphisms and variants not predicted to be pathogenic, the twins had 32 novel variants in 32 genes that were felt to be likely to be associated with human disease. Eighteen of these novel variants were associated with recessive disease and 18 were associated with dominantly manifesting conditions (variants in some genes were potentially associated with both recessive and dominant conditions), but only 1 variant ultimately met our institutional review board-approved criteria for return of information to the research participants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The rat genome was sequenced in 2004 with the aim to improve human health altered by disease and environmental influences through gene discovery and animal model validation. Here, we report development and testing of a probe set for whole exome sequencing (WES) to detect sequence variants in exons and UTRs of the rat genome. Using an in-silico approach, we designed probes targeting the rat exome and compared captured mutations in cancer-related genes from four chemically induced rat tumor cell lines (C6, FAT7, DSL-6A/C1, NBTII) to validated cancer genes in the human database, Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) as well as normal rat DNA. Paired, fresh frozen (FF) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue from naive rats were sequenced to confirm known dbSNP variants and identify any additional variants. RESULTS:Informatics analysis of available gene annotation from rat RGSC6.0/rn6 RefSeq and Ensembl transcripts provided 223,636 unique exons representing a total of 26,365 unique genes and untranslated regions. Using this annotation and the Rn6 reference genome, an in-silico probe design generated 826,878 probe sequences of which 94.2% were uniquely aligned to the rat genome without mismatches. Further informatics analysis revealed 25,249 genes (95.8%) covered by at least one probe and 23,603 genes (93.5%) had every exon covered by one or more probes. We report high performance metrics from exome sequencing of our probe set and Sanger validation of annotated, highly relevant, cancer gene mutations as cataloged in the human COSMIC database, in addition to several exonic variants in cancer-related genes. CONCLUSIONS:An in-silico probe set was designed to enrich the rat exome from isolated DNA. The platform was tested on rat tumor cell lines and normal FF and FFPE liver tissue. The method effectively captured target exome regions in the test DNA samples with exceptional sensitivity and specificity to obtain reliable sequencing data representing variants that are likely chemically induced somatic mutations. Genomic discovery conducted by means of high throughput WES queries should benefit investigators in discovering rat genomic variants in disease etiology and in furthering human translational research.
Project description:Comprehensive molecular characterization of cancer that has metastasized to bone has proved challenging, which may limit the diagnostic and potential therapeutic opportunities for patients with bone-only metastatic disease.We describe successful tissue acquisition, DNA extraction, and whole-exome sequencing from a bone metastasis of a patient with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa).The resulting high-quality tumor sequencing identified plausibly actionable somatic genomic alterations that dysregulate the phosphoinostide 3-kinase pathway, as well as a theoretically actionable germline variant in the BRCA2 gene.We demonstrate the feasibility of diagnostic bone metastases profiling and analysis that will be required for the widespread application of prospective 'precision medicine' to men with advanced PCa.
Project description:Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In order to understand the genetic background, we sequenced the whole exome and the whole genome of one microsatellite stable as well as one microsatellite unstable tumor and the matched healthy tissue on two different NGS platforms. We here aimed to provide a comparative approach for individual clinical tumor sequencing and annotation using different sequencing technologies and mutation calling algorithms.We applied a population-based whole genome resource as a novel pathway-based filter for interpretation of genomic alterations from single nucleotide variations (SNV), indels, and large structural variations. In addition to a comparison with tumor genome database resources and a filtering approach using data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we performed pyrosequencing analysis and immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 428 independent gastric cancer cases.We here provide an example comparing the usefulness and potential pitfalls of different technologies for a clinical interpretation of genomic sequence data of individual gastric cancer samples. Using different filtering approaches, we identified a multitude of novel potentially damaging mutations and could show a validated association between a mutation in GNAS and gastric cancer.
Project description:As the cost of DNA sequencing decreases, association studies based on whole genome sequencing are now becoming feasible. It is still unclear, however, how much more we could gain from whole genome sequencing compared to exome sequencing, which has been widely used to study a variety of diseases. In this project, we performed a comparison between whole genome sequencing and exome sequencing for family-based association analysis using data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. Whole genome sequencing was able to identify several significant hits within intergenic regions. However, the increased cost of multiple testing counteracted the benefits and resulted in a higher false discovery rate. Our results suggest that exome sequencing is a cost-effective way to identify disease-related variants. With the decreasing sequencing cost and accumulating knowledge of the human genome, whole genome sequencing has the potential to identify important variants in regulatory regions typically inaccessible for exome sequencing.
Project description:Despite the identification of several ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition genes, a large proportion of familial OC risk remains unexplained. We adopted a two-stage design to identify new OC predisposition genes. We first carried out a large germline whole-exome sequencing study on 158 patients from 140 families with significant OC history, but without evidence of genetic predisposition due to BRCA1/2. We then evaluated the potential candidate genes in a large case-control association study involving 381 OC cases in the Cancer Genome Atlas project and 27,173 population controls from the Exome Aggregation Consortium. Two new putative OC risk genes were identified, namely, ANKRD11, a putative tumor suppressor, and POLE, an enzyme involved in DNA repair and replication. These two genes likely confer moderate OC risk. We performed in vitro experiments and showed an ANKRD11 mutation identified in our patients markedly lowered the protein expression by compromising protein stability. Upon future validation and functional characterization, these genes may shed light on cancer etiology along with improving ascertainment power and preventive care of individuals at high risk of OC.
Project description:To evaluate the potential of an integrated clinical test to detect diverse classes of somatic and germline mutations relevant to pediatric oncology, we performed three-platform whole-genome (WGS), whole exome (WES) and transcriptome (RNA-Seq) sequencing of tumors and normal tissue from 78 pediatric cancer patients in a CLIA-certified, CAP-accredited laboratory. Our analysis pipeline achieves high accuracy by cross-validating variants between sequencing types, thereby removing the need for confirmatory testing, and facilitates comprehensive reporting in a clinically-relevant timeframe. Three-platform sequencing has a positive predictive value of 97-99, 99, and 91% for somatic SNVs, indels and structural variations, respectively, based on independent experimental verification of 15,225 variants. We report 240 pathogenic variants across all cases, including 84 of 86 known from previous diagnostic testing (98% sensitivity). Combined WES and RNA-Seq, the current standard for precision oncology, achieved only 78% sensitivity. These results emphasize the critical need for incorporating WGS in pediatric oncology testing.
Project description:To identify genomic mutations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (LGACC) samples from patients.Genomic DNA was extracted from LGACC specimens. Whole exome sequencing (exome-seq) was conducted to screen for mutations. Capillary sequencing was performed to verify mutations in genes shared by multiple samples. Luciferase assays were used to evaluate functional consequences of NOTCH1 mutations.The mutation profile of LGACC was complicated. The most frequently mutated gene observed (28.6%) was bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF). No mutation was identified in common cancer genes such as TP53, KRAS, and BRAF. However, mutations predicted to be functionally severe were accumulated in the Notch signaling pathway including NOTCH1 and NOTCH2, of which mutations have been reported in head/neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Of 14 LGACC samples, five samples carry mutations in Notch pathway genes. Capillary sequencing verified all the mutations in the two NOTCH genes identified by exome-seq. Compared to the wild-type NOTCH1, three frame shifting mutations and two missense mutations (C387W and L1600Q) increased luciferase activity approximately 10- to 25-fold.Major genomic mutation profiles in LGACC were uncovered by exome-seq. Although preliminary in nature, the Notch pathway could be a potential therapeutic target for LGACC.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that leukemogenic chromosomal translocations, including fusions between Break point Cluster Region (BCR) and Abelson (ABL) are present in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the genetic alterations other than BCR-Abl translocation in molecular level, which cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).We performed whole-exome sequencing on four cases representative of BCR-ABL positive CML in chronic phase of the disease.We did not identify any pathogenic mutation in all known genes involved in CML or other cancers in our subjects. Nevertheless, we identified polymorphisms in related genes.It is the first report of exome sequencing in Philadelphia chromosome positive CML patients. We did not identify any pathogenic mutation in known cancer genes in our patients who can be due to CML pathogenesis or technical limitations.