Project description:BACKGROUND:A number of Pyricularia species are known to infect different grass species. In the case of Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), distinct populations are known to be adapted to a wide variety of grass hosts, including rice, wheat and many other grasses. The genome sizes of Pyricularia species are typical for filamentous ascomycete fungi [~?40 Mbp for P. oryzae, and ~?45 Mbp for P. grisea]. Genome plasticity, mediated in part by deletions promoted by recombination between repetitive elements [Genome Res 26:1091-1100, 2016, Nat Rev Microbiol 10:417-430,2012] and transposable elements [Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:483-503,2017] contributes to host adaptation. Therefore, comparisons of genome structure of individual species will provide insight into the evolution of host specificity. However, except for the P. oryzae subgroup, little is known about the gene content or genome organization of other Pyricularia species, such as those infecting Pennisetum grasses. RESULTS:Here, we report the genome sequence of P. penniseti strain P1609 isolated from a Pennisetum grass (JUJUNCAO) using PacBio SMRT sequencing technology. Phylogenomic analysis of 28 Magnaporthales species and 5 non-Magnaporthales species indicated that P1609 belongs to a Pyricularia subclade, which is genetically distant from P. oryzae. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the pathogenicity-related gene repertoires had diverged between P1609 and the P. oryzae strain 70-15, including the known avirulence genes, other putative secreted proteins, as well as some other predicted Pathogen-Host Interaction (PHI) genes. Genomic sequence comparison also identified many genomic rearrangements relative to P. oryzae. CONCLUSION:Our results suggested that the genomic sequence of the P. penniseti P1609 could be a useful resource for the genetic study of the Pennisetum-infecting Pyricularia species and provide new insight into evolution of pathogen genomes during host adaptation.
Project description:Pyricularia oryzae is a species complex that causes blast disease on more than 50 species of poaceous plants. Pyricularia oryzae has a worldwide distribution as a rice pathogen and in the last 30 years emerged as an important wheat pathogen in southern Brazil. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using 10 housekeeping loci for 128 isolates of P. oryzae sampled from sympatric populations of wheat, rice, and grasses growing in or near wheat fields. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the isolates into three major clades. Clade 1 comprised isolates associated only with rice and corresponds to the previously described rice blast pathogen P. oryzae pathotype Oryza (PoO). Clade 2 comprised isolates associated almost exclusively with wheat and corresponds to the previously described wheat blast pathogen P. oryzae pathotype Triticum (PoT). Clade 3 contained isolates obtained from wheat as well as other Poaceae hosts. We found that Clade 3 is distinct from P. oryzae and represents a new species, Pyricularia graminis-tritici (Pgt). No morphological differences were observed among these species, but a distinctive pathogenicity spectrum was observed. Pgt and PoT were pathogenic and highly aggressive on Triticum aestivum (wheat), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Urochloa brizantha (signal grass), and Avena sativa (oats). PoO was highly virulent on the original rice host (Oryza sativa), and also on wheat, barley, and oats, but not on signal grass. We conclude that blast disease on wheat and its associated Poaceae hosts in Brazil is caused by multiple Pyricularia species. Pyricularia graminis-tritici was recently found causing wheat blast in Bangladesh. This indicates that P. graminis-tritici represents a serious threat to wheat cultivation globally.
Project description:Rice blast disease is caused by the ascomycete fungus Pyricularia oryzae and is one of the most destructive rice diseases in the world. The objectives of this study were investigating various fungal morphological characteristics and performing a phylogenetic analysis. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to examine the genetic variation of 59 rice blast fungus strains, including 57 strains collected from different fields in Thailand and two reference strains, 70-15 and Guy11. All isolates used in this study were determined to be P. oryzae by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence confirmation. A total of 14 ISSR primers and 17 pairs of SRAP primers, which produced clear and polymorphic bands, were selected for assessing genetic diversity. A total of 123 polymorphic bands were generated. The similarity index value for the strains ranged from 0.25 to 0.95. The results showed that the blast fungus population in Thailand has both morphological and genetic variations. A high level of genetic variation, or genome adaptation, is one of the fungal mechanisms that could overcome host resistance to avoid host recognition. Results from this research study could bring substantial benefits and ultimately help to understand the blast fungal pathogen genome and the population structure in Thai blast fungus.
Project description:Species of Pyricularia (magnaporthe-like sexual morphs) are responsible for major diseases on grasses. Pyricularia oryzae (sexual morph Magnaporthe oryzae) is responsible for the major disease of rice called rice blast disease, and foliar diseases of wheat and millet, while Pyricularia grisea (sexual morph Magnaporthe grisea) is responsible for foliar diseases of Digitaria. Magnaporthe salvinii, M. poae and M. rhizophila produce asexual spores that differ from those of Pyricularia sensu stricto that has pyriform, 2-septate conidia produced on conidiophores with sympodial proliferation. Magnaporthe salvinii was recently allocated to Nakataea, while M. poae and M. rhizophila were placed in Magnaporthiopsis. To clarify the taxonomic relationships among species that are magnaporthe- or pyricularia-like in morphology, we analysed phylogenetic relationships among isolates representing a wide range of host plants by using partial DNA sequences of multiple genes such as LSU, ITS, RPB1, actin and calmodulin. Species of Pyricularia s. str. belong to a monophyletic clade that includes all P. oryzae/P. grisea isolates tested, defining the Pyriculariaceae, which is sister to the Ophioceraceae, representing two novel families. These clades are clearly distinct from species belonging to the Gaeumannomyces pro parte/Magnaporthiopsis/Nakataea generic complex that are monophyletic and define the Magnaporthaceae. A few magnaporthe- and pyricularia-like species are unrelated to Magnaporthaceae and Pyriculariaceae. Pyricularia oryzae/P. grisea isolates cluster into two related clades. Host plants such as Eleusine, Oryza, Setaria or Triticum were exclusively infected by isolates from P. oryzae, while some host plant such as Cenchrus, Echinochloa, Lolium, Pennisetum or Zingiber were infected by different Pyricularia species. This demonstrates that host range cannot be used as taxonomic criterion without extensive pathotyping. Our results also show that the typical pyriform, 2-septate conidium morphology of P. grisea/P. oryzae is restricted to Pyricularia and Neopyricularia, while most other genera have obclavate to more ellipsoid 2-septate conidia. Some related genera (Deightoniella, Macgarvieomyces) have evolved 1-septate conidia. Therefore, conidium morphology cannot be used as taxonomic criterion at generic level without phylogenetic data. We also identified 10 novel genera, and seven novel species. A re-evaluation of generic and species concepts within Pyriculariaceae is presented, and novelties are proposed based on morphological and phylogenetic data.
Project description:Eco-friendly analogs of Trichogin GA IV, a short peptaibol produced by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, were assayed against Pyricularia oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. In vitro and in vivo screenings allowed us to identify six peptides able to reduce by about 70% rice blast symptoms. One of the most active peptides was selected for further studies. Microscopy analyses highlighted that the treated fungal spores could not germinate and the fluorescein-labeled peptide localized on the spore cell wall and in the agglutinated cytoplasm. Transcriptomic analysis was carried out on P. oryzae mycelium 3 h after the peptide treatment. We identified 1,410 differentially expressed genes, two-thirds of which upregulated. Among these, we found genes involved in oxidative stress response, detoxification, autophagic cell death, cell wall biogenesis, degradation and remodeling, melanin and fatty acid biosynthesis, and ion efflux transporters. Molecular data suggest that the trichogin analogs cause cell wall and membrane damages and induce autophagic cell death. Ultrastructure observations on treated conidia and hyphae confirmed the molecular data. In conclusion, these selected peptides seem to be promising alternative molecules for developing effective bio-pesticides able to control rice blast disease.
Project description:This study's objective was to evaluate the contributions of benomyl and a melanin biosynthesis dehydratase inhibitor (MBI-D) mixture to preventing the re-emergence of MBI-D-resistant Pyricularia oryzae in rice fields. In nursery boxes, applications of diclocymet or mixtures of diclocymet and tiadinil showed low leaf blast incidences, but MBI-D-resistant isolates were re-selected. However, a management program applying both benomyl and MBI-D-related products to nursery box plants prevented the re-emergence of MBI-D-resistant isolates more effectively than the application of only MBI-D-related products.