Project description:The early-life intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping host immune system development. We found that a single early-life antibiotic course (1PAT) accelerated Type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in male NOD mice. The single course had strong and persistent effects on the intestinal microbiome, selecting for a highly metabolically active metagenome, with altered hepatic and serum metabolites. The exposure led to differential ileal and hepatic histone modification, and perturbed ileal gene expression, strongly affecting the normal maturational pattern. Earliest effects involved specific genes in innate immune pathways, with later effects on adaptive immunity. Microbiome analysis revealed four potential T1D-protective taxa and four T1D-accelerating taxa, and a network linking specific microbial taxa to differences in ileal gene expression was identified. This simplified animal model has improved understanding of the mechanisms by which early-life gut microbiome perturbations alter host intestinal responses, contributing to T1D. Overall design: Nanostring gene expression analysis was performed on RNA extracted from the terminal ileum of control, PAT1 and PAT3 mice from P12 to P42 of life.
Project description:On going efforts are directed at understanding the mutualism between the gut microbiota and the host in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants. Due to the lack of tissue biopsies, no investigators have performed a global transcriptional (gene expression) analysis of the developing human intestine in healthy infants. As a result, the crosstalk between the microbiome and the host transcriptome in the developing mucosal-commensal environment has not been determined. In this study, we examined the host intestinal mRNA gene expression and microbial DNA profiles in full term 3 month-old infants exclusively formula fed (FF) (n=6) or breast fed (BF) (n=6) from birth to 3 months. Host mRNA microarray measurements were performed using isolated intact sloughed epithelial cells in stool samples collected at 3 months. Microbial composition from the same stool samples was assessed by metagenomic pyrosequencing. Both the host mRNA expression and bacterial microbiome phylogenetic profiles provided strong feature sets that clearly classified the two groups of babies (FF and BF). To determine the relationship between host epithelial cell gene expression and the bacterial colony profiles, the host transcriptome and functionally profiled microbiome data were analyzed in a multivariate manner. From a functional perspective, analysis of the gut microbiota's metagenome revealed that characteristics associated with virulence differed between the FF and BF babies. Using canonical correlation analysis, evidence of multivariate structure relating eleven host immunity / mucosal defense-related genes and microbiome virulence characteristics was observed. These results, for the first time, provide insight into the integrated responses of the host and microbiome to dietary substrates in the early neonatal period. Our data suggest that systems biology and computational modeling approaches that integrate “-omic” information from the host and the microbiome can identify important mechanistic pathways of intestinal development affecting the gut microbiome in the first few months of life. KEYWORDS: infant, breast-feeding, infant formula, exfoliated cells, transcriptome, metagenome, multivariate analysis, canonical correlation analysis 12 samples, 2 groups
Project description:In a prior report, we observed two distinct lung microbiomes in healthy subjects that we termed “pneumotypes”: pneumotypeSPT, characterized by high bacterial load and supraglottic predominant taxa (SPT) such as the anaerobes Prevotella and Veillonella; and pneumotypeBPT, with low bacterial burden and background predominant taxa (BPT) found in the saline lavage and bronchoscope. Here, we determined the prevalence of these two contrasting lung microbiome types, in a multi-center study of healthy subjects. We confirmed that a lower airway microbiome enriched with upper airway microbes (pneumotypeSPT) was present in ~45% of healthy individuals. Cross-sectional Multicenter cohort. BAL of 49 healthy subjects from three cohort had their lower airway microbiome assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing and microbial gene content (metagenome) was computationally inferred from taxonomic assignments. The amplicons from total 100 samples are barcoded; the barcode and other clinical characteristics (e.g. inflammatory biomarkers and metabolome data) for each sample are provided in the 'Pneumotype.sep.Map.A1.txt' file.
Project description:The experiment at three long-term agricultural experimental stations (namely the N, M and S sites) across northeast to southeast China was setup and operated by the Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This experiment belongs to an integrated project (The Soil Reciprocal Transplant Experiment, SRTE) which serves as a platform for a number of studies evaluating climate and cropping effects on soil microbial diversity and its agro-ecosystem functioning. Soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate change in realistic climate regimes. Here, we assessed the effects of soil type, soil transplant and landuse changes on soil microbial communities, which are key drivers in Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Overall design: Eighty one samples were collected from three soil types (Mollisol,Inceptisol,Ultisol) in three sites (Hailun, Fengqiu and Yingtan) along a latitude with reciprocal transplant; With three treatment of bare fallow soil, maize cropping soil and NPK fertilization soil in each site; Three replicates in every treatments.