Project description:Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), caused by cotton leaf curl viruses (CLCuVs), is among the most devastating diseases in cotton. While the widely cultivated cotton species Gossypium hirsutum is generally susceptible, the diploid species G. arboreum is a natural source for resistance against CLCuD. However, the influence of CLCuD on the G. arboreum transcriptome and the interaction of CLCuD with G. arboreum remains to be elucidated. Here we have used an RNA-Seq based study to analyze differential gene expression in G. arboreum under CLCuD infestation. G. arboreum plants were infested by graft inoculation using a CLCuD infected scion of G. hirsutum. CLCuD infested asymptomatic and symptomatic plants were analyzed with RNA-seq using an Illumina HiSeq. 2500. Data analysis revealed 1062 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in G. arboreum. We selected 17 genes for qPCR to validate RNA-Seq data. We identified several genes involved in disease resistance and pathogen defense. Furthermore, a weighted gene co-expression network was constructed from the RNA-Seq dataset that indicated 50 hub genes, most of which are involved in transport processes and might have a role in the defense response of G. arboreum against CLCuD. This fundamental study will improve the understanding of virus-host interaction and identification of important genes involved in G. arboreum tolerance against CLCuD.
Project description:Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease is one of the major limiting factors in cotton production, particularly in widely cultivated Gossypium hirsutum varieties that are susceptible to attack by this virus. Several approaches have been employed to explore putative resistance genes in another cotton species, G. arboreum. However, the exact mechanisms conferring disease resistance in cotton are still unknown. In the current study, we used various approaches to identify possible resistance genes against CLCuV infection. We report the identification and isolation of a set of genes involved in the resistance response to viral infestation. PCR products containing genomic DNA gave multiple amplifications with a single primer in most reactions, and 38 fragments were cloned from G. arboreum and G. hirsutum. The sequences of cloned fragments belonged to various pathway genes and uncharacterized proteins. However, five amplified fragments (RM1, RM6, RM8, RM12 and RM31) showed similarity with R genes. Maximum homology (94 %) was observed with G. raimondii toll/interleukin receptor-like protein. BLAST search showed the homology of all resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with more than one chromosome, and multiple hits were observed on each chromosome for each RGA. Expression analysis through RT-PCR identified variable expression levels of the different RGAs in all tested genotypes. The expression level of RGAs differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, with the exception of RGA 395, whose expression level was the same in both diseased and healthy plants. Knowledge of the interaction of these genes with various cotton pathogens could be utilized to improve the resistance of susceptible G. hirsutum and other plant species.
Project description:Cotton leaf curl is devastating disease of cotton characterized by leaf curling, vein darkening and enations. The disease symptoms are induced by DNA satellite known as Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB), dominant betasatellite in cotton but another betasatellite known as Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) is also found associated with the disease. Grafting experiment was performed to determine if host plant resistance is determinant of dominant population of betasatellite in cotton (several distinct strains of CLCuMuB are associated with the disease). Infected scion of Gossypium hirsutum collected from field (the source) was grafted on G. arboreum, a diploid cotton species, resistant to the disease. A healthy scion of G. hirsutum (sink) was grafted at the top of G. arboreum to determine the movement of virus/betasatellite to upper susceptible scion of G. hirsutum. Symptoms of disease appeared in the upper scion and presence of virus/betasatellite in the upper scion was confirmed via molecular techniques, showing that virus/betasatellite was able to move to upper scion through resistant G. arboreum. However, no symptoms appeared on G. arboreum. Betasatelites were cloned and sequenced from lower scion, upper scion and G. arboreum which show that the lower scion contained both CLCuMuB and ChLCB, however only ChLCB was found in G. arboreum. The upper scion contained CLCuMuB with a deletion of 78 nucleotides (nt) in the non-coding region between A-rich sequence and ?C1 gene and insertion of 27 nt in the middle of ?C1 ORF. This study may help in investigating molecular basis of resistance in G. arboreum.
Project description:The mevalonate (MVA) pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of cytosolic terpenes including gossypol and its derivatives, which play an important role in the cotton plant's defense against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, we identified and cloned 17 potentially functional genes encoding enzymes that catalyze the six steps of the MVA pathway in Gossypium arboreum. Expression pattern analysis by qRT-PCR demonstrated that these genes had tissue-specific expression profiles and were most prevalently expressed in roots. Moreover, these genes were up-regulated in response to several elicitors, including methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, as well as Verticillium dahliae infection and Helicoverpa armigera infestation. This indicates that the MVA pathway genes are involved in the signaling pathway regulated by exogenous hormones and the resistance of cotton plants to pathogens and herbivores. Our results improve the understanding of cytosolic terpene biosynthesis in Gossypium species and lay the foundation for further research on gossypol biosynthesis.
Project description:The cotton diploid species, Gossypium arboreum, shows important properties of stress tolerance and good genetic stability. In this study, through mRNA-seq, we de novo assembled the unigenes of multiple samples with 3h H(2)O, NaCl, or PEG treatments in leaf, stem and root tissues and successfully obtained 123,579 transcripts of G. arboreum, 89,128 of which were with hits through BLAST against known cotton ESTs and draft genome of G. raimondii. About 36,961 transcripts (including 1,958 possible transcription factor members) were identified with differential expression under water stresses. Principal component analysis of differential expression levels in multiple samples suggested tissue selective signalling responding to water stresses. Venn diagram analysis showed the specificity and intersection of transcripts' response to NaCl and PEG treatments in different tissues. Self-organized mapping and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data also revealed strong tissue selectivity of transcripts under salt and osmotic stresses. In addition, the enriched gene ontology (GO) terms for the selected tissue groups were differed, including some unique enriched GO terms such as photosynthesis and tetrapyrrole binding only in leaf tissues, while the stem-specific genes showed unique GO terms related to plant-type cell wall biogenesis, and root-specific genes showed unique GO terms such as monooxygenase activity. Furthermore, there were multiple hormone cross-talks in response to osmotic and salt stress. In summary, our multidimensional mRNA sequencing revealed tissue selective signalling and hormone crosstalk in response to salt and osmotic stresses in G. arboreum. To our knowledge, this is the first such report of spatial resolution of transcriptome analysis in G. arboreum. Our study will potentially advance understanding of possible transcriptional networks associated with water stress in cotton and other crop species.
Project description:Whitefly infestation of cotton crop imparts enormous damage to cotton yield by severely affecting plant health, vigour and transmitting Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV). Genetic modification of cotton helps to overcome both the direct whitefly infestation as well as CLCuV based cotton yield losses. We have constitutively overexpressed asparaginase (ZmASN) gene in Gossypium hirsutum to overcome the cotton yield losses imparted by whitefly infestation. We achieved 2.54% transformation efficiency in CIM-482 by Agrobacterium-mediated shoot apex transformation method. The relative qRT-PCR revealed 40-fold higher transcripts of asparaginase in transgenic cotton line vs. non-transgenic cotton lines. Metabolic analysis showed higher contents of aspartic acid and glutamic acid in seeds and phloem sap of the transgenic cotton lines. Phenotypically, the transgenic cotton lines showed vigorous growth and height, greater number of bolls, and yield. Among six representative transgenic cotton lines, line 14 had higher photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, smooth fiber surface, increased fiber convolutions (SEM analysis) and 95% whitefly mortality as compared to non-transgenic cotton line. The gene integration analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization showed single copy gene integration at chromosome number 1. Collectively, asparaginase gene demonstrated potential to control whitefly infestation, post-infestation damages and improve cotton plant health and yield: a pre-requisite for farmer's community.
Project description:The aim of the present study is to list the genes involved in cotton (G. arboreum) leaf epicuticular wax production and deposition. For this purpose differentially expressed genes (especially, down-regulated in wax deficient mutant plant) in wild and epicuticular wax mutant (Gawm3) plants were founded through cDNA microarray, developed from the wild plant leaves. Overall design: 3× (wild cotton leaf labeled with Cy3/ epicuticular wax mutant cotton leaf (Gawm3) labeled with Cy5) 3× (wild cotton leaf labeled with Cy5/ epicuticular wax mutant cotton leaf (Gawm3) labeled with Cy3)
Project description:BACKGROUND:Root systems are critical for plant growth and development. The Casparian strip in root systems is involved in stress resistance and maintaining homeostasis. Casparian strip membrane domain proteins (CASPs) are responsible for the formation of Casparian strips. RESULTS:To investigate the function of CASPs in cotton, we identified and characterized 48, 54, 91 and 94 CASPs from Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum, respectively, at the genome-wide level. However, only 29 common homologous CASP genes were detected in the four Gossypium species. A collinearity analysis revealed that whole genome duplication (WGD) was the primary reason for the expansion of the genes of the CASP family in the four cotton species. However, dispersed duplication could also contribute to the expansion of the GaCASPs gene family in the ancestors of G. arboreum. Phylogenetic analysis was used to cluster a total of 85 CASP genes from G. arboreum and Arabidopsis into six distinct groups, while the genetic structure and motifs of CASPs were conserved in the same group. Most GaCASPs were expressed in diverse tissues, with the exception of that five GaCASPs (Ga08G0113, Ga08G0114, Ga08G0116, Ga08G0117 and Ga08G0118) that were highly expressed in root tissues. Analyses of the tissue and subcellular localization suggested that GaCASP27 genes (Ga08G0117) are membrane protein genes located in the root. In the GaCASP27 silenced plants and the Arabidopsis mutants, the lateral root number significantly increased. Furthermore, GaMYB36, which is related to root development was found to regulate lateral root growth by targeting GaCASP27. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides a fundamental understanding of the CASP gene family in cotton and demonstrates the regulatory role of GaCASP27 on lateral root growth and development.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3'-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a second round of both cis- and trans-cleavage of additional siRNAs, leading to the formation of complex sRNA regulatory networks mediating posttranscriptional gene silencing. Results from this study extended our knowledge on G. arboreum sRNAs and their biological importance, which would facilitate future studies on regulatory mechanism of tissue development in cotton and other plant species.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:The fuzzless gene GaFzl was fine mapped to a 70-kb region containing a GIR1 gene, Cotton_A_11941, responsible for the fuzzless trait in Gossypium arboreum DPL972. Cotton fiber is the most important natural textile resource. The fuzzless mutant DPL972 (Gossypium arboreum) provides a useful germplasm resource to explore the molecular mechanism underlying fiber and fuzz initiation and development. In our previous research, the fuzzless gene in DPL972 was identified as a single dominant gene and named GaFzl. In the present study, we fine mapped this gene using F2 and BC1 populations. By combining traditional map-based cloning and next-generation sequencing, we mapped GaFzl to a 70-kb region containing seven annotated genes. RNA-Sequencing and re-sequencing analysis narrowed these candidates to two differentially expressed genes, Cotton_A_11941 and Cotton_A_11942. Sequence alignment uncovered no variation in coding or promoter regions of Cotton_A_11942 between DPL971 and DPL972, whereas two single-base mutations in the promoter region and a TTG insertion in the coding region were detected in Cotton_A_11941 in DPL972. Cotton_A_11941 encoding a homologous gene of GIR1 (GLABRA2-interacting repressor) in Arabidopsis thaliana is thus the candidate gene most likely responsible for the fuzzless trait in DPL972. Our findings should lead to a better understanding of cotton fuzz formation, thereby accelerating marker-assisted selection during cotton breeding.