Project description:Ocimum tenuiflorum is a widely used medicinal plant since ancient times and still continues to be irreplaceable due to its properties. The plant has been explored chemically and pharmacologically, however, the molecular studies have been started lately. In an attempt to get a comprehensive overview of the abiotic stress response in O. tenuiflorum, de novo transcriptome sequencing of plant leaves under the cold, drought, flood and salinity stresses was carried out. A comparative differential gene expression (DGE) study was carried out between the common transcripts in each stress with respect to the control. KEGG pathway analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment studies exhibited several modifications in metabolic pathways as the result of four abiotic stresses. Besides this, a comparative metabolite profiling of stress and control samples was performed. Among the cold, drought, flood and salinity stresses, the plant was most susceptible to the cold stress. Severe treatments of all these abiotic stresses also decreased eugenol which is the main secondary metabolite present in the O. tenuiflorum plant. This investigation presents a comprehensive analysis of the abiotic stress effects in O. tenuiflorum. Current study provides an insight to the status of pathway genes' expression that help synthesizing economically valuable phenylpropanoids and terpenoids related to the adaptation of the plant. This study identified several putative abiotic stress tolerant genes which can be utilized to either breed stress tolerant O. tenuiflorum through pyramiding or generating transgenic plants.
Project description:Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops.
Project description:Environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major factors that significantly limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, the paucity of wheat NAC members functionally characterized to date does not match the importance of this plant as a world staple crop. Here, the function of TaNAC2 was characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. A fragment of TaNAC2 was obtained from suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of wheat treated with polyethylene glycol, and its full-length cDNA was obtained by searching a full-length wheat cDNA library. Gene expression profiles indicated that TaNAC2 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid treatment. To test its function, transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing TaNAC2-GFP controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaNAC2 resulted in enhanced tolerances to drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis, which were simultaneously demonstrated by enhanced expression of abiotic stress-response genes and several physiological indices. Therefore, TaNAC2 has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crops.
Project description:Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+) efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.
Project description:Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins contain thioredoxin domains that catalyze protein disulfide bond, inhibit aggregation of misfolded proteins, and function in isomerization during protein folding in endoplasmic reticulum and responses during abiotic stresses.Chinese cabbage is widely recognized as an economically important, nutritious vegetable, but its yield is severely hampered by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Because of, it is prime need to identify those genes whose are responsible for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PDI family genes are among of them.We have identified 32 PDI genes from the Br135K microarray dataset, NCBI and BRAD database, and in silico characterized their sequences. Expression profiling of those genes was performed using cDNA of plant samples imposed to abiotic stresses; cold, salt, drought and ABA (Abscisic Acid) and biotic stress; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans infection. The Chinese cabbage PDI genes were clustered in eleven groups in phylogeny. Among them, 15 PDI genes were ubiquitously expressed in various organs, while 24 PDI genes were up-regulated under salt and drought stress. By contrast, cold and ABA stress responsive gene number were ten and nine, respectively. In case of F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans infection 14 BrPDI genes were highly up-regulated. Interestingly, BrPDI1-1 gene was identified as putative candidate against abiotic (salt and drought) and biotic stresses, BrPDI5-2 gene for ABA stress, and BrPDI1-4, 6-1 and 9-2 were putative candidate genes for both cold and chilling injury stresses.Our findings help to elucidate the involvement of PDI genes in stress responses, and they lay the foundation for functional genomics in future studies and molecular breeding of Brassica rapa crops. The stress-responsive PDI genes could be potential resources for molecular breeding of Brassica crops resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Project description:Computational approaches to high-throughput data are gaining importance because of explosion of sequences in the post-genomic era. This explosion of sequence data creates a huge gap among the domains of sequence structure and function, since the experimental techniques to determine the structure and function are very expensive, time taking, and laborious in nature. Therefore, there is an urgent need to emphasize on the development of computational approaches in the field of biological systems. Engagement of proteins in quaternary arrangements, such as domain swapping, might be relevant for higher compatibility of such genes at stress conditions. In this study, the capacity to engage in domain swapping was predicted from mere sequence information in the whole genome of holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum), which is well known to be an anti-stress agent. Approximately, one-fourth of the proteins of O tenuiflorum are predicted to undergo three-dimensional (3D)-domain swapping. Furthermore, function annotation was carried out on all the predicted domain-swap sequences from the O tenuiflorum and Arabidopsis thaliana for their distribution in different Pfam protein families and gene ontology (GO) terms. These domain-swapped protein sequences are associated with many Pfam protein families with a wide range of GO annotation terms. A comparative analysis of domain-swap-predicted sequences in O tenuiflorum with gene products in A thaliana reveals that around 26% (2522 sequences) are close homologues across the 2 genomes. Functional annotation of predicted domain-swapped sequences infers that predicted domain-swap sequences are involved in diverse molecular functions, such as in gene regulation of abiotic stress conditions and adaptation to different environmental niches. Finally, the positively predicted sequences of A thaliana and O tenuiflorum were also examined for their presence in stress regulome, as recorded in our STIFDB database, to check the involvement of these proteins in different abiotic stresses.
Project description:To identify novel miRNA and NAT-siRNAs that are associated with abiotic stresses in maize, we generated small RNA sequences from maize seedlings that grew under control and under dought, salt, and cold stress treatments. Overall design: Sequencing of small RNAs in maize under control, drought, salt, and cold stress conditions.
Project description:Pathak2013 - MAPK activation in response to various abiotic stresses
MAPK activation mechanism in response to various abiotic stress conditions, such as cold, salt, drought, H2O2, heavy metal and ethylene, in plants
This model is described in the article:
Modeling of the MAPK machinery activation in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses in plants by a system biology approach.
Pathak RK, Taj G, Pandey D, Arora S, Kumar A.
Bioinformation 2013; 9(9): 443-449
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) cascade plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development, generating cellular responses to the extracellular stimuli. MAPKs cascade mainly consist of three sub-families i.e. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), several cascades of which are activated by various abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work we have modeled the holistic molecular mechanisms essential to MAPKs activation in response to several abiotic and biotic stresses through a system biology approach and performed its simulation studies. As extent of abiotic and biotic stresses goes on increasing, the process of cell division, cell growth and cell differentiation slow down in time dependent manner. The models developed depict the combinatorial and multicomponent signaling triggered in response to several abiotic and biotic factors. These models can be used to predict behavior of cells in event of various stresses depending on their time and exposure through activation of complex signaling cascades.
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Project description:Drought and cold are the primary factors limiting plant growth worldwide. The Ammopiptanthus mongolicus NAC11 (AmNAC11) gene encodes a stress-responsive transcription factor. Expression of the AmNAC11 gene was induced by drought, cold and high salinity. The AmNAC11 protein was localized in the nucleus and plays an important role in tolerance to drought, cold and salt stresses. We also found that differential expression of AmNAC11 was induced in the early stages of seed germination and was related to root growth. When the AmNAC11 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by an Agrobacterium-mediated method, the transgenic lines expressing AmNAC11 displayed significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and freezing stresses compared to wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results indicated that over-expression of the AmNAC11 gene in Arabidopsis could significantly enhance its tolerance to drought and freezing stresses. Our study provides a promising approach to improve the tolerance of crop cultivars to abiotic stresses through genetic engineering.