Project description:Olfaction plays an indispensable role in mediating insect behavior, such as locating host plants, mating partners, and avoidance of toxins and predators. Olfactory-related proteins are required for olfactory perception of insects. However, very few olfactory-related genes have been reported in Plodia interpunctella up to now. In the present study, we sequenced the antennae transcriptome of P. interpunctella using the next-generation sequencing technology, and identified 117 candidate olfactory-related genes, including 29 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 47 odorant receptors (ORs), 14 ionotropic receptors (IRs) and nine gustatory receptors (GRs). Further analysis of qRT-PCR revealed that nine OBPs, three CSPs, two SNMPs, nine ORs and two GRs were specifically expressed in the male antennae, whereas eight OBPs, six CSPs, one SNMP, 16 ORs, two GRs and seven IRs significantly expressed in the female antennae. Taken together, our results provided useful information for further functional studies on insect genes related to recognition of pheromone and odorant, which might be meaningful targets for pest management.
Project description:All Lepidoptera produce two sperm types: normal, nucleated 'eupyrene' sperm and anucleate 'apyrene' sperm. One hypothesis for the evolution of apyrene sperm suggests that they act to reduce female remating rate. Apyrene sperm require less resources to produce than do eupyrene sperm, and could delay remating by females by acting as a 'cheap filler', packing the spermatheca and thereby reducing receptivity. This would reduce the risk of sperm competition, giving a potential adaptive advantage to the male producing these sperm. This leads to the prediction that the probability of a female remating should correlate with the number of stored apyrene sperm, which has previously been supported by experiments using the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi We repeated this experiment using the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella We find that in this species, eupyrene, not apyrene sperm number is the best predictor of female remating probability, indicating that the 'cheap filler' hypothesis for the function of apyrene sperm is not well supported in Pl. interpunctella.
Project description:Insects can infest facilities that house and process post-harvest grains and grain-based products. Integrated pest management tactics rely on tracking insect populations and using this information to select and target management tactics. Our ability to predict when and where to best focus treatment relies on an understanding of long-term trends, but often any available monitoring data are limited in its duration. Here we present data collected over a 10-year period at a flour mill in the central part of the United States. Using traps placed both inside and outside a flour mill and baited with pheromone-lures for Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Indianmeal moth, and Trogoderma variabile Ballion, warehouse beetle, we examine environmental and spatial variability in insect captures. We find that both species, inside and outside the mill, are highly influenced by seasonal patterns, with peaks of insect captures during the warm season (April through September). There is also consistency across time and space in trap capture for P. interpunctella with traps in an open location consistently capturing high numbers of insects. In contrast, T. variabile lacked consistency in trap capture but were most often not found in the same trap locations as P. interpunctella. Fumigations conducted within the facility appeared to have little impact on insect captures inside, with dynamics appearing to be driven more by broader seasonal patterns in activity. These data and analyses suggest that there is a larger population of these insects that are readily moving in and out of the structures, while fumigation treatments are only impacting a small portion of the overall population and tactics targeting immigration may be an important addition to the pest management program.
Project description:The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, is one of the most damaging pests of stored products. We investigated the insecticidal properties of ApKTI, a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds, against P. interpunctella larvae through bioassays with artificial diet. ApKTI-fed larvae showed reduction of up to 88% on larval weight and 75% in survival. Trypsin enzymes extracted from P. interpunctella larvae were inhibited by ApKTI, which also demonstrated capacity to bind to chitin. Kinetic studies revealed a non-competitive inhibition mechanism of ApKTI for trypsin, which were further corroborated by molecular docking studies. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ApKTI exhibits a hydrophobic pocket near the reactive site loop probably involved in chitin interactions. Taken together, these data suggested that the insecticidal activity of ApKTI for P. interpunctella larvae involves a dual and promiscuous mechanisms biding to two completely different targets. Both processes might impair the P. interpunctella larval digestive process, leading to larvae death before reaching the pupal stage. Further studies are encouraged using ApKTI as a biotechnological tool to control insect pests in field conditions.
Project description:The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored goods with a worldwide distribution. The complete genome sequence for a larval pathogen of this moth, the baculovirus Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (PiGV), was determined by next-generation sequencing. The PiGV genome was found to be 112, 536 bp in length with a 44.2% G+C nucleotide distribution. A total of 123 open reading frames (ORFs) and seven homologous regions (hrs) were identified and annotated. Phylogenetic inference using concatenated alignments of 36 baculovirus core genes placed PiGV in the "b" clade of viruses from genus Betabaculovirus with a branch length suggesting that PiGV represents a distinct betabaculovirus species. In addition to the baculovirus core genes and orthologues of other genes found in other betabaculovirus genomes, the PiGV genome sequence contained orthologues of the bidensovirus NS3 gene, as well as ORFs that occur in alphabaculoviruses but not betabaculoviruses. While PiGV contained an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-5 (iap-5), an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-3 (iap-3) was not present. Instead, the PiGV sequence contained an ORF (PiGV ORF81) encoding an IAP homologue with sequence similarity to insect cellular IAPs, but not to viral IAPs. Phylogenetic analysis of baculovirus and insect IAP amino acid sequences suggested that the baculovirus IAP-3 genes and the PiGV ORF81 IAP homologue represent different lineages arising from more than one acquisition event. The presence of genes from other sources in the PiGV genome highlights the extent to which baculovirus gene content is shaped by horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1) has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA of adult Plodia interpunctella males and females at 1 day after eclosion for the tissues/composite structures head, thorax, and gonads, as well as sexed 5th instar larvae heads. The purpose of the study was to compare overall gene expression patterns of the Z chromosome and the autosomes between males and females in order to assess the status of dosage compensation.