Project description:Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic human pathogen that is known to cause hospital-acquired respiratory and urinary tract infections. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence and the features of S. marcescens phage Serbin.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen that typically infects the respiratory and urinary tract, with the majority of cases being hospital acquired. The study of S. marcescens phages may help control drug-resistant S. marcescens strains. In this study, we announce the complete genome sequence and the features of S. marcescens siphophage Scapp.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen causing various hospital-acquired infections. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of S. marcescens myophage Moabite. The genome of Moabite is 273,933 bp long, with 337 predicted coding sequences and two tRNA genes, and it shares its highest amino acid identity with Serratia phage 2050HW.
Project description:The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is the most recently described and least understood of the protein secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria. It is widely distributed and has been implicated in the virulence of various pathogens, but its mechanism and exact mode of action remain to be defined. Additionally there have been several very recent reports that some T6SSs can target bacteria rather than eukaryotic cells. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic enteric pathogen, a class of bacteria responsible for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired infections. We describe the identification of a functional T6SS in S. marcescens strain Db10, the first report of type VI secretion by an opportunist enteric bacterium. The T6SS of S. marcescens Db10 is active, with secretion of Hcp to the culture medium readily detected, and is expressed constitutively under normal growth conditions from a large transcriptional unit. Expression of the T6SS genes did not appear to be dependent on the integrity of the T6SS. The S. marcescens Db10 T6SS is not required for virulence in three nonmammalian virulence models. It does, however, exhibit dramatic antibacterial killing activity against several other bacterial species and is required for S. marcescens to persist in a mixed culture with another opportunist pathogen, Enterobacter cloacae. Importantly, this antibacterial killing activity is highly strain specific, with the S. marcescens Db10 T6SS being highly effective against another strain of S. marcescens with a very similar and active T6SS. We conclude that type VI secretion plays a crucial role in the competitiveness, and thus indirectly the virulence, of S. marcescens and other opportunistic bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory, urinary, and digestive tract infections in humans. Here, we describe the annotation of Serratia marcescens myophage MyoSmar. The 68,745-bp genome encodes 105 predicted proteins and is most similar to the genomes of Pseudomonas PB1-like viruses.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen. It is notorious for its increasing antimicrobial resistance and its potential to cause outbreaks of colonization and infections, predominantly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). There, its spread requires rapid infection control response. To understand its spread, detailed molecular typing is key. We present a whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) method for S. marcescens Using a set of 299 publicly available whole-genome sequences (WGS), we developed an initial wgMLST system consisting of 9,377 gene loci. This included 1,455 loci occurring in all reference genomes and 7,922 accessory loci. This closed system was validated using three geographically diverse collections of S. marcescens consisting of 111 clinical isolates implicated in nosocomial dissemination events in three hospitals. The validation procedure showed a full match between epidemiological data and the wgMLST analyses. We set the cutoff value for epidemiological (non)relatedness at 20 different alleles, though for the majority of outbreak-clustered isolates, this difference was limited to 4 alleles. This shows that the wgMLST system for S. marcescens provides prospects for successful future monitoring for the epidemiological containment of this opportunistic pathogen.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a range of human infections, including bacteremia, keratitis, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. Compared to other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, the genetic factors that facilitate Serratia proliferation within the mammalian host are less well defined. An in vivo screen of transposon insertion mutants identified 212 S. marcescens fitness genes that contribute to bacterial survival in a murine model of bloodstream infection. Among those identified, 11 genes were located within an 18-gene cluster encoding predicted extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis proteins. A mutation in the wzx gene contained within this locus conferred a loss of fitness in competition infections with the wild-type strain and a reduction in extracellular uronic acids correlating with capsule loss. A second gene, pgm, encoding a phosphoglucomutase exhibited similar capsule-deficient phenotypes, linking central glucose metabolism with capsule production and fitness of Serratia during mammalian infection. Further evidence of the importance of central metabolism was obtained with a pfkA glycolytic mutant that demonstrated reduced replication in human serum and during murine infection. An MgtB magnesium transporter homolog was also among the fitness factors identified, and an S. marcescens mgtB mutant exhibited decreased growth in defined medium containing low concentrations of magnesium and was outcompeted ~10-fold by wild-type bacteria in mice. Together, these newly identified genes provide a more complete understanding of the specific requirements for S. marcescens survival in the mammalian host and provide a framework for further investigation of the means by which S. marcescens causes opportunistic infections.IMPORTANCESerratia marcescens is a remarkably prolific organism that replicates in diverse environments, including as an opportunistic pathogen in human bacteremia. The genetic requirements for S. marcescens survival in the mammalian bloodstream were defined in this work by transposon insertion sequencing. In total, 212 genes that contribute to bacterial fitness were identified. When sorted via biological function, two of the major fitness categories identified herein were genes encoding capsule polysaccharide biogenesis functions and genes involved in glucose utilization. Further investigation determined that certain glucose metabolism fitness genes are also important for the generation of extracellular polysaccharides. Together, these results identify critical biological processes that allow S. marcescens to colonize the mammalian bloodstream.
Project description:Pathogenic bacteria adapt to their environment and manipulate the biochemistry of hosts by secretion of effector molecules. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen associated with healthcare-acquired infections and is a prolific secretor of proteins, including three chitinases (ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC) and a chitin binding protein (Cbp21). In this work, genetic, biochemical, and proteomic approaches identified genes that were required for secretion of all three chitinases and Cbp21. A genetic screen identified a holin-like protein (ChiW) and a putative l-alanyl-d-glutamate endopeptidase (ChiX), and subsequent biochemical analyses established that both were required for nonlytic secretion of the entire chitinolytic machinery, with chitinase secretion being blocked at a late stage in the mutants. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated bimodal and coordinated expression of chiX and chiA and revealed that cells expressing chiA remained viable. It is proposed that ChiW and ChiX operate in tandem as components of a protein secretion system used by gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Serratia marcescens has long been recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen, but the underlying pathogenesis mechanism is not completely clear. Here, we report a key pathogenesis pathway in S. marcescens comprising the RssAB two-component system and its downstream elements, FlhDC and the dominant virulence factor hemolysin ShlBA. Expression of shlBA is under the positive control of FlhDC, which is repressed by RssAB signaling. At 37°C, functional RssAB inhibits swarming, represses hemolysin production, and promotes S. marcescens biofilm formation. In comparison, when rssBA is deleted, S. marcescens displays aberrant multicellularity favoring motile swarming with unbridled hemolysin production. Cellular and animal infection models further demonstrate that loss of rssBA transforms this opportunistic pathogen into hypervirulent phenotypes, leading to extensive inflammatory responses coupled with destructive and systemic infection. Hemolysin production is essential in this context. Collectively, a major virulence regulatory pathway is identified in S. marcescens.