Project description:The majority of breast cancers expresses the estrogen receptor (ER+) and is treated with anti-estrogen therapies, particularly tamoxifen in premenopausal women. However, tamoxifen resistance is responsible for a large proportion of breast cancer deaths. Using small molecule inhibitors, phospho-mimetic proteins, tamoxifen-sensitive and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, a tamoxifen-resistant patient-derived xenograft model, patient tumor tissues, and genome-wide transcription and translation studies, we show that tamoxifen resistance involves selective mRNA translational reprogramming to an anti-estrogen state by Runx2 and other mRNAs. Tamoxifen-resistant translational reprogramming is shown to be mediated by increased expression of eIF4E and its increased availability by hyperactive mTOR and to require phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser209 by increased MNK activity. Resensitization to tamoxifen is restored only by reducing eIF4E expression or mTOR activity and also blocking MNK1 phosphorylation of eIF4E. mRNAs specifically translationally up-regulated with tamoxifen resistance include Runx2, which inhibits ER signaling and estrogen responses and promotes breast cancer metastasis. Silencing Runx2 significantly restores tamoxifen sensitivity. Tamoxifen-resistant but not tamoxifen-sensitive patient ER+ breast cancer specimens also demonstrate strongly increased MNK phosphorylation of eIF4E. eIF4E levels, availability, and phosphorylation therefore promote tamoxifen resistance in ER+ breast cancer through selective mRNA translational reprogramming.
Project description:Tamoxifen resistant translational reprogramming is shown to be mediated by increased expression of eIF4E and its increased availability by hyperactive mTOR, and to require phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser209 by increased MNK activity. Overall design: Polysome profiling examining eIF4E knock-down in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells (MCF7)
Project description:Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) selectively promotes translation of mRNAs with atypically long and structured 5'-UTRs and has been implicated in drug resistance. Through genome-wide transcriptome and translatome analysis we revealed eIF4E overexpression could promote cellular activities mediated by ER? and FOXM1 signalling pathways. Whilst eIF4E overexpression could enhance the translation of both ER? and FOXM1, it also led to enhanced transcription of FOXM1. Polysome fractionation experiments confirmed eIF4E could modulate the translation of ER? and FOXM1 mRNA. The enhancement of FOXM1 transcription was contingent upon the presence of ER?, and it was the high levels of FOXM1 that conferred Tamoxifen resistance. Furthermore, tamoxifen resistance was conferred by phosphorylation independent eIF4E overexpression. Immunohistochemistry on 134 estrogen receptor (ER+) primary breast cancer samples confirmed that high eIF4E expression was significantly associated with increased ER? and FOXM1, and significantly associated with tamoxifen resistance. Our study uncovers a novel mechanism whereby phosphorylation independent eIF4E translational reprogramming in governing the protein synthesis of ER? and FOXM1 contributes to anti-estrogen insensitivity in ER+ breast cancer. In eIF4E overexpressing breast cancer, the increased ER? protein expression in turn enhances FOXM1 transcription, which together with its increased translation regulated by eIF4E, contributes to tamoxifen resistance. Coupled with eIF4E translational regulation, our study highlights an important mechanism conferring tamoxifen resistance via both ER? dependent and independent pathways.
Project description:While selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen, have contributed to increased survival in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, the development of resistance to these therapies has led to the need to investigate other targetable pathways involved in oncogenic signaling. Approval of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in the therapy of secondary endocrine resistance demonstrates the validity of this approach. Importantly, mTOR activation regulates eukaryotic messenger RNA translation. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a component of the cap-dependent translation complex eIF4F, confers resistance to drug-induced apoptosis when overexpressed in multiple cell types. The eIF4F complex is downstream of multiple oncogenic pathways, including mTOR, making it an appealing drug target. Here, we show that the eIF4F translation pathway was hyperactive in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) MCF-7L breast cancer cells. While overexpression of eIF4E was not sufficient to confer resistance to tamoxifen in MCF-7L cells, its function was necessary to maintain resistance in TamR cells. Targeting the eIF4E subunit of the eIF4F complex through its degradation using an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) or via sequestration using a mutant 4E-BP1 inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of TamR cells and partially restored sensitivity to tamoxifen. Further, the use of these agents also resulted in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in TamR cells. Finally, the use of a pharmacologic agent which inhibited the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction also decreased the proliferation and anchorage-dependent colony formation in TamR cells. These results highlight the eIF4F complex as a promising target for patients with acquired resistance to tamoxifen and, potentially, other endocrine therapies.
Project description:The influenza virus mRNAs are structurally similar to cellular mRNAs nevertheless; the virus promotes selective translation of viral mRNAs despite the inhibition of host cell protein synthesis. The infection proceeds normally upon functional impairment of eIF4E cap-binding protein, but requires functional eIF4A helicase and eIF4G factor. Here, we have studied whether the presence of cis elements in viral mRNAs or the action of viral proteins is responsible for this eIF4E-independence. The eIF4E protein is required for viral mRNA translation in vitro, indicating that cis-acting RNA sequences are not involved in this process. We also show that PB2 viral polymerase subunit interacts with the eIF4G protein. In addition, a chimeric mRNA containing viral UTR sequences transcribed by the viral polymerase out of the infection is successfully translated independently of an impaired eIF4E factor. These data support that the viral polymerase is responsible for the eIF4E independence of influenza virus mRNA translation.
Project description:The current overview will summarize some of the developments in the area of protein translation, including their relation to the therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer.Translational control, mediated by the rate-limiting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), drives selective translation of several oncogenic proteins, thereby contributing to tumor growth, metastasis, and treatment resistance in various cancers, including prostate cancer. As an essential regulatory hub, several oncogenic hyperactive signaling pathways appear to converge on eIF4E to promote tumorigenesis. Several approaches that target the eIF4E-dependent protein translation network are being actively studied, and it is likely that some may ultimately emerge as promising anticancer therapeutics.An array of inhibitors has shown promise in targeting specific components of the translational machinery in several preclinical models of prostate cancer. It is hoped that some of these approaches may ultimately have relevance in improving the clinical outcomes of patients with advanced prostate cancer.
Project description:Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4E(WT)) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4E(cap mutant)) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site dual mTOR inhibitor CC214-1 reduced the level of the eIF4F complex by decreasing the cap bound fraction of eIF4G and increasing the levels of 4E-BP1. CC214-1 inhibited both the cap dependent and global protein translation. CC214-1 inhibited c-Myc, and cyclin D3 translation by decreasing polysomal fractions from lymphoma cells. Inhibition of eIF4E with shRNA further decreased the CC214-1 induced inhibition of the eIF4F complex, c-Myc, cyclin D3 translation, and colony formation. These studies demonstrate that the eIF4F complex is deregulated in aggressive lymphoma and that dual mTOR therapy has therapeutic potential in these patients.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.
Project description:Translation of mRNA into protein has a fundamental role in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and memory formation; however, its contribution in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders is not fully understood. We investigated the involvement of MNK1/2 (MAPK-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 and 2) and their target, eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E), in depression-like behavior in mice. Mice carrying a mutation in eIF4E for the MNK1/2 phosphorylation site (Ser209Ala, Eif4e ki/ki), the Mnk1/2 double knockout mice (Mnk1/2-/-), or mice treated with the MNK1/2 inhibitor, cercosporamide, displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, impaired serotonin-induced excitatory synaptic activity in the prefrontal cortex, and diminished firing of the dorsal raphe neurons. In Eif4e ki/ki mice, brain I?B?, was decreased, while the NF-?B target, TNF? was elevated. TNF? inhibition in Eif4e ki/ki mice rescued, whereas TNF? administration to wild-type mice mimicked the depression-like behaviors and 5-HT synaptic deficits. We conclude that eIF4E phosphorylation modulates depression-like behavior through regulation of inflammatory responses.
Project description:Plasticity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that promotes pain requires activity-dependent mRNA translation. Protein synthesis inhibitors block the ability of many pain-promoting molecules to enhance excitability in DRG neurons and attenuate behavioral signs of pain plasticity. In line with this, we have recently shown that phosphorylation of the 5' cap-binding protein, eIF4E, plays a pivotal role in plasticity of DRG nociceptors in models of hyperalgesic priming. However, mRNA targets of eIF4E phosphorylation have not been elucidated in the DRG. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling from nociceptors in the DRG to spinal dorsal horn neurons is an important mediator of hyperalgesic priming. Regulatory mechanisms that promote pain plasticity via controlling BDNF expression that is involved in promoting pain plasticity have not been identified. We show that phosphorylation of eIF4E is paramount for Bdnf mRNA translation in the DRG. Bdnf mRNA translation is reduced in mice lacking eIF4E phosphorylation (eIF4ES209A ) and pro-nociceptive factors fail to increase BDNF protein levels in the DRGs of these mice despite robust upregulation of Bdnf-201 mRNA levels. Importantly, bypassing the DRG by giving intrathecal injection of BDNF in eIF4ES209A mice creates a strong hyperalgesic priming response that is normally absent or reduced in these mice. We conclude that eIF4E phosphorylation-mediated translational control of BDNF expression is a key mechanism for nociceptor plasticity leading to hyperalgesic priming.