Project description:Empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) are the major wastes generated by the oil palm industry in Malaysia. The practice of EFB and POME digester sludge co-composting has shown positive results, both in mitigating otherwise environmentally damaging waste streams and producing a useful product (compost) from these streams. In this study, the bacterial ecosystems of 12-week-old EFB-POME co-compost and POME biogas sludge from Felda Maokil, Johor were analysed using 16S metagenome sequencing. Over ten phyla were detected, with Chloroflexi being the predominant phylum, representing approximately 53% of compost and 23% of the POME microbiome reads. The main bacterial lineage found in the compost and POME was Anaerolinaceae (Chloroflexi) with 30% and 18% of the total gene fragments, respectively. The significant differences between compost and POME communities were abundances of Syntrophobacter, Sulfuricurvum and Coprococcus. No methanogens were identified due to the bias in general 16S primers to eubacteria. The preponderance of anaerobic species in the compost and high abundance of secondary metabolite fermenting bacteria is due to an extended composting time, with anaerobic collapse of the pile due to the tropical heat. Predictive functional profiles of the metagenomes using 16S rRNA marker genes suggest that the presence of enzymes involved in degradation of polysaccharides such as glucoamylase, endoglucanase and arabinofuranosidase, all of which were strongly active in POME. Eubacterial species associated with cellulytic methanogenesis were present in both samples.
Project description:Despite efforts to address the composition of the microbial community during the anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME), its composition in relation to biodegradation in the full-scale treatment system has not yet been extensively examined. Therefore, a thorough analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities was performed in the present study using MiSeq sequencing at the different stages of the POME treatment, which comprised anaerobic as well as facultative anaerobic and aerobic processes, including the mixed raw effluent (MRE), mixing pond, holding tank, and final discharge phases. Based on the results obtained, the following biodegradation processes were suggested to occur at the different treatment stages: (1) Lactobacillaceae (35.9%) dominated the first stage, which contributed to high lactic acid production; (2) the higher population of Clostridiaceae in the mixing pond (47.7%) and Prevotellaceae in the holding tank (49.7%) promoted acetic acid production; (3) the aceticlastic methanogen Methanosaetaceae (0.6-0.8%) played a role in acetic acid degradation in the open digester and closed reactor for methane generation; (4) Syntrophomonas (21.5-29.2%) appeared to be involved in the degradation of fatty acids and acetic acid by syntrophic cooperation with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanobacteriaceae (0.6-1.3%); and (5) the phenols and alcohols detected in the early phases, but not in the final discharge phase, indicated the successful degradation of lignocellulosic materials. The present results contribute to a better understanding of the biodegradation mechanisms involved in the different stages of the full-scale treatment of POME.
Project description:Colorants contained in palm oil mill effluent (POME) are recalcitrant and carcinogenic in nature. The commonly applied ponding treatment methods have been reported inefficient for remediating the concentration of the colorants before discharge. The need for sustainable and efficient treatment technique is crucial in order to preserve the environment. In this view, this study reported the first attempt to decolorize POME using a proliferate Klebsiella Pneumonia ABZ11 at varied inoculum sizes of 5-25% (v/v), initial color concentration (650-2,600 ADMI) and treatment time of 5-40 h. The treatment conditions were optimized using Response Surface Methodology. At optimal conditions of 20% (v/v) inoculum size, initial-color concentration of 2,600 ADMI, initial pH of 7 and 35 h treatment retention time, over 80.40% color removal was achieved with insignificant disparity compared with the model predicted value of 81.538%. Also, the Monod model excellently described the decolorization kinetic process with 0.9214 coefficient of correlation (R 2), and the calculated maximum growth ? max ) and half-saturation constant (K s ) were 7.023 d-1 and 340.569 ADMI d-1, respectively. This study revealed that the Klebsiella Pneumonia ABZ11 was highly prolific and such feature may favor a synergistic biodegradation process.
Project description:Phytoremediation is one of the environmental-friendly and cost-effective systems for the treatment of wastewater, including industrial wastewater such as palm oil mill effluent final discharge (POME FD). However, the effects of the wastewater on the phytoremediator plants, in term of growth performance, lignocellulosic composition, and the presence of nutrients and heavy metals in the plants are not yet well studied. In the present work, we demonstrated that POME FD increased the growth of P. purpureum. The height increment of P. purpureum supplied with POME FD (treatment) was 61.72% as compared to those supplied with rain water (control) which was 14.42%. For lignocellulosic composition, the cellulose percentages were 38.77?±?0.29% (treatment) and 34.16?±?1.01% (control), and the difference was significant. These results indicated that POME FD could be a source of plant nutrients, which P. purpureum can absorb for growth. It was also found that the heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb) inside the plant were below the standard limit of the World Health Organization (WHO). Since POME FD was shown to have no adverse effects on P. purpureum, further research regarding the potential application of P. purpureum following phytoremediation of POME FD such as biofuel production is warranted to evaluate its potential use to fit into the waste-to-wealth agenda.
Project description:The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW) basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C(8:0)) to oleic acid (C(18:1)) were used as sole carbon and energy source. Molecular weight of the polymer was found to be ranging from 55.7 to 77.7 kDa. Depending on the type of fatty acid used, the (1)H NMR and GCMSMS analyses of the chiral polymer showed a composition of even and odd carbon atom chain with monomer length of C4 to C14 with C8 and C10 as the principal monomers. No unsaturated monomer was detected. Thermo-chemical analyses showed the accumulated PHA to be semi-crystalline polymer with good thermal stability, having a thermal degradation temperature (T(d)) of 264.6 to 318.8 (± 0.2) (o)C, melting temperature (T(m)) of 43. (± 0.2) (o)C, glass transition temperature (T(g)) of -1.0 (± 0.2) (o)C and apparent melting enthalpy of fusion (?H(f)) of 100.9 (± 0.1) J g(-1).
Project description:This study was aimed at identifying indigenous microorganisms from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and to ascertain the microbial load. Isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms was subjected to standard microbiological methods and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes for the microbial strains signifies that they were known as Micrococcus luteus 101PB, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 102PB, Bacillus cereus 103PB, Providencia vermicola 104PB, Klebsiella pneumoniae 105PB, Bacillus subtilis 106PB, Aspergillus fumigatus 107PF, Aspergillus nomius 108PF, Aspergillus niger 109PF and Meyerozyma guilliermondii 110PF. Results revealed that the population of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) ranged from 9.5 × 105 - 7.9 × 106 cfu/mL. The total heterotrophic fungi (THF) ranged from 2.1 × 104 - 6.4 × 104 cfu/mL. Total viable heterotrophic indigenous microbial population on CMC agar ranged from 8.2 × 105 - 9.1 × 106 cfu/mL and 1.4 × 103 - 3.4 × 103 cfu/mL for bacteria and fungi respectively. The microbial population of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) ranged from 6.4 × 105 - 4.8 × 106 cfu/mL and the oil degrading fungi (ODF) ranged from 2.8 × 103 - 4.7 × 104 cfu/mL. The findings revealed that microorganisms flourish well in POME. Therefore, this denotes that isolating native microorganisms from POME is imperative for effectual bioremediation, biotreatment and biodegradation of industrial wastewaters.
Project description:Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78 degrees C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0) as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5-99.2%). Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification.Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70 degrees C and was also stable up to 60 degrees C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T). Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T).Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile.
Project description:Oil palm trunk (OPT) represents one of the five main oil palm biomass wastes with high carbon content that can be economically converted to a large surface area, porous activated carbon (AC) adsorbent to treat palm oil mill effluent wastewater in Indonesia and Malaysia. In the first portion of this work, the design of the experiment was used to determine the optimum set of synthesis parameters required to maximize the iodine number of AC [i.e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area indicator] prepared from OPT via chemical activation route using H3PO4. The iodine numbers of AC and AC yield were probed as the impregnation ratio, the activation time, and the activation temperature were varied in the range of 0.28-3.47, 5.68-69.32 min, and 379-521 °C, respectively. An impregnation ratio of 2.29, an activation time of 6 min, and an activation temperature of 450 °C were identified as the optimum set of synthesis parameters. In the second portion of the work, the AC synthesized using the optimum parameters were then characterized and tested as an adsorbent for tannin. N2 sorption results revealed that the AC exhibits type IV isotherm, that is, contains micropores and mesopores and displays a relatively high BET specific surface area of 1657 m2 g-1. Adsorption equilibria isotherms for tannin adsorption onto the AC were collected at three different pH of 2, 4, and 6 and were nonlinearly fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, where the Langmuir isotherm gave better fitting than Freundlich. The higher adsorption capacity at lower pH can be explained in terms of the absence of electrostatic repulsion interaction between the AC surface and the tannic acid species as suggested by the point of zero charges (pHpzc) of 4.8 and an increasing ionization of tannic acid with pH rise between 4 and 7. Adsorption kinetics data were also obtained at four different pH of 2, 4, 6, and 8 where the nonlinear pseudo-first-order model best fitted the kinetic at pH of 2 and the nonlinear pseudo-second-order model represented the kinetic best at the remaining higher pH, which suggests that tannin adsorption onto AC occurred by physisorption at pH of 2 and by chemisorption at pH of 4, 6, and 8.
Project description:The biggest agricultural sector that contributes to the Malaysian economy is the oil palm industry. The effluent generated during the production of crude palm oil known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME undergoes anaerobic treatment that requires long retention time and produces large amount of methane that consequently contributes to global warming. In this study, an isolated bacteria was selected based on its ability to degrade kraft lignin (KL) and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. The bacteria were able to treat POME (from anaerobic pond) under the aerobic condition without addition of nutrient, resulting in a significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 71 %, removal rate of 1385 mg/l/day, and 12.3 times higher than that of the ponding system. It has also resulted in 60 % removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and 55 % of total polyphenolic after 6-day treatment period with the detection of lignocellulolytic enzymes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Isoprene is the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, with annual global emissions almost equal to those of methane. Despite its importance in atmospheric chemistry and climate, little is known about the biological degradation of isoprene in the environment. The largest source of isoprene is terrestrial plants, and oil palms, the cultivation of which is expanding rapidly, are among the highest isoprene-producing trees. RESULTS:DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) to study the microbial isoprene-degrading community associated with oil palm trees revealed novel genera of isoprene-utilising bacteria including Novosphingobium, Pelomonas, Rhodoblastus, Sphingomonas and Zoogloea in both oil palm soils and on leaves. Amplicon sequencing of isoA genes, which encode the ?-subunit of the isoprene monooxygenase (IsoMO), a key enzyme in isoprene metabolism, confirmed that oil palm trees harbour a novel diversity of isoA sequences. In addition, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from oil palm soil and leaf metagenomes and putative isoprene degradation genes were identified. Analysis of unenriched metagenomes showed that isoA-containing bacteria are more abundant in soils than in the oil palm phyllosphere. CONCLUSION:This study greatly expands the known diversity of bacteria that can metabolise isoprene and contributes to a better understanding of the biological degradation of this important but neglected climate-active gas. Video abstract.