Project description:Transcriptional profiles and host-response biomarkers are used increasingly to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole-blood mRNA signatures and concentrations of local and systemic immunological mediators in 131 adults hospitalized with influenza, from whom extensive clinical and investigational data were obtained by MOSAIC investigators. Signatures reflective of interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in patients who did not require mechanical ventilator support; in those who needed mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated-neutrophil and cell-stress or death ('bacterial') pattern was seen, even early in disease. Identifiable bacterial co-infection was not necessary for this 'bacterial' signature but was able to enhance its development while attenuating the early 'viral' signature. Our findings emphasize the importance of timing and severity in the interpretation of host responses to acute viral infection and identify specific patterns of immune-system activation that might enable the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for severe influenza.
Project description:Transcriptional profiles are increasingly used to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole blood RNA signatures and local and systemic immune mediator levels in a large cohort of adults hospitalised with influenza from which extensive clinical and investigational data was obtained. Signatures reflecting interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in cases not requiring mechanical ventilatory support; in those needing mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated neutrophil and cell stress/death (‘bacterial’) pattern was seen, even early after disease onset. Identifiable bacterial co-infection was not necessary for this ‘bacterial’ signature but could enhance its development while attenuating the early ‘viral’ signature. Our findings emphasise the importance of timing and severity in the interpretation of transcriptomic profiles and soluble mediator levels, and identify specific patterns of immune activation that may enable the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics Overall design: At each time point, 3 ml of whole blood were collected into each of two Tempus tubes (Applied Biosystems/Ambion) by trained research staff following a standard phlebotomy protocol. Blood was vigorously mixed immediately following collection and stored at -80°C before RNA extraction. For each patient, the contents of one tube were used for analysis and the other tube was retained in case of assay failure. RNA was isolated using 1.5 ml whole blood and the MagMAX-96 Blood RNA Isolation Kit (Applied Biosystems/Ambion), as per the manufacturer’s instructions. 250 ug of isolated total RNA was globin-reduced using the GLOBINclear 96-well format kit (Applied Biosystems/Ambion) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Total and globin-reduced RNA integrity was assessed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies). RNA yield was assessed using a NanoDrop8000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Products, Thermo Fisher Scientific). High-quality (>6.5 RIN) whole blood RNA was successfully obtained and processed by microarray in all cases. Biotinylated, amplified antisense complementary RNA (cRNA) targets were prepared from 200-250 ng of globin-reduced RNA using the Illumina CustomPrep RNA amplification kit (Applied Biosystems/Ambion). For each sample, seven hundred and fifty nanograms of labelled cRNA were hybridised overnight to Illumina Human HT12 V4 BeadChip arrays (Illumina), which contained greater than 47,000 probes. The arrays were washed, blocked, stained and scanned on an Illumina iScan, as per the manufacturer’s instructions. GenomeStudio (Illumina) was used to perform quality control and generate signal intensity values. Contributor: the MOSAIC Investigators
Project description:BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that acute infection with the respiratory pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), results in local production of the proinflammatory chemokine, CCL3, and that neutrophil recruitment in response to PVM infection is reduced dramatically in CCL3 -/- mice. RESULTS: In this work, we demonstrate that CCL3-mediated neutrophil recruitment is coordinated by interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). Neutrophil recruitment in response to PVM infection was diminished five-fold in IFNgamma receptor gene-deleted mice, although neutrophils from IFNgammaR -/- mice expressed transcripts for the CCL3 receptor, CCR1 and responded functionally to CCL3 ex vivo. Similarly, in the absence of PVM infection, CCL3 overexpression alone could not elicit neutrophil recruitment in the absence of IFNgamma. Interestingly, although supplemental IFNgamma restored neutrophil recruitment and resulted in a sustained weight loss among CCL3-overexpressing IFNgamma -/- mice, CCL3-mediated neutrophil recruitment alone did not result in the pulmonary edema or respiratory failure characteristic of severe viral infection, suggesting that CCL3 and IFN-gamma together are sufficient to promote neutrophil recruitment but not pathologic activation. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a heretofore unrecognized hierarchical interaction between the IFNgamma and CCL3, which demonstrate that IFNgamma is crucial for CCL3-mediated neutrophil recruitment in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza infections produce a spectrum of disease severity, ranging from a mild respiratory illness to respiratory failure and death. The host-response pathways associated with the progression to severe influenza disease are not well understood. METHODS:To gain insight into the disease mechanisms associated with progression to severe infection, we analyzed the leukocyte transcriptome in severe and moderate influenza patients and healthy control subjects. Pathway analysis on differentially expressed genes was performed using a topology-based pathway analysis tool that takes into account the interaction between multiple cellular pathways. The pathway profiles between moderate and severe influenza were then compared to delineate the biological mechanisms underpinning the progression from moderate to severe influenza. RESULTS:107 patients (44 severe and 63 moderate influenza patients) and 52 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Severe influenza was associated with upregulation in several neutrophil-related pathways, including pathways involved in neutrophil differentiation, migration, degranulation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The degree of upregulation in neutrophil-related pathways were significantly higher in severely infected patients compared to moderately infected patients. Severe influenza was also associated with downregulation in immune response pathways, including pathways involved in antigen presentation such as CD4+ T-cell co-stimulation, CD8+ T cell and Natural Killer (NK) cells effector functions. Apoptosis pathways were also downregulated in severe influenza patients compare to moderate and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:These findings showed that there are changes in gene expression profile that may highlight distinct pathogenic mechanisms associated with progression from moderate to severe influenza infection.
Project description:The SNP rs12252-C allele alters the function of interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 increasing the disease severity of influenza virus infection in Caucasians, but the allele is rare. However, rs12252-C is much more common in Han Chinese. Here we report that the CC genotype is found in 69% of Chinese patients with severe pandemic influenza A H1N1/09 virus infection compared with 25% in those with mild infection. Specifically, the CC genotype was estimated to confer a sixfold greater risk for severe infection than the CT and TT genotypes. More importantly, because the risk genotype occurs with such a high frequency, its effect translates to a large population-attributable risk of 54.3% for severe infection in the Chinese population studied compared with 5.4% in Northern Europeans. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 genetic variants could, therefore, have a strong effect of the epidemiology of influenza in China and in people of Chinese descent.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Airway neutrophils are abundant in some children with severe asthma, but their functions are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:To characterize that the inflammatory airway environment of children with neutrophil-predominant severe asthma promotes neutrophil survival and disrupts neutrophil-associated innate immune defenses. METHODS:Sixty-seven children with severe asthma refractory to high-dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment undergoing bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for clinical indications were stratified into neutrophil "high" versus "low" groups on the basis of BAL differential counts. Neutrophil activation markers, functional assays, and phenotyping studies were performed, as well as airway macrophage functional assays. Results were compared with those from children with moderate asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids. RESULTS:Children with neutrophil-predominant severe asthma had increased markers of neutrophil activation/degranulation and a greater magnitude of airway proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. Primary neutrophils exposed to BAL of these children exhibited greater phagocytic capability and greater neutrophil extracellular trap formation, but a more impaired respiratory burst. Despite greater abundance of airway TGF-?1, the neutrophils were not more apoptotic. Instead, neutrophils had a highly proinflammatory phenotype associated with a number of surface markers that regulate neutrophil activation, recruitment/migration, and granule release. Airway macrophages from children with neutrophil-predominant severe asthma were also more proinflammatory with impaired phagocytosis and increased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:Children with neutrophil-predominant severe asthma have proinflammatory neutrophils with enhanced survival. Airway macrophages are also proinflammatory and dysfunctional and may contribute to global innate immune impairment. Therapies that target neutrophils and related inflammation may be warranted in this subset of children.
Project description:Influenza virus (IFV) infection is a common cause of severe pneumonia. Studies have suggested that excessive activation of the host immune system including macrophages is responsible for the severe pathologies mediated by IFV infection. Here, we focused on the X11 protein family member Mint3/Apba3, known to promote ATP production via glycolysis by activating hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in macrophages, and examined its roles in lung pathogenesis and anti-viral defence upon IFV infection. Mint3-deficient mice exhibited improved influenza pneumonia with reduced inflammatory cytokines/chemokine levels and neutrophil infiltration in the IFV-infected lungs without alteration in viral burden, type-I interferon production, or acquired immunity. In macrophages, Mint3 depletion attenuated NF-?B signalling and the resultant cytokine/chemokine production in response to IFV infection by increasing I?B? and activating the cellular energy sensor AMPK, respectively. Thus, Mint3 might represent one of the likely therapeutic targets for the treatment of severe influenza pneumonia without affecting host anti-viral defence through suppressing macrophage cytokine/chemokine production.
Project description:Severe asthma is a debilitating and treatment refractory disease. As many as half of these patients have complex neutrophil-predominant lung inflammation that is distinct from milder asthma with type 2 eosinophilic inflammation. New insights into severe asthma pathogenesis are needed. Concomitant exposure of mice to an aeroallergen and endotoxin during sensitization resulted in complex neutrophilic immune responses to allergen alone during later airway challenge. Unlike allergen alone, sensitization with allergen and endotoxin led to NETosis. In addition to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), enucleated neutrophil cytoplasts were evident in the lungs. Surprisingly, allergen-driven airway neutrophilia was decreased in peptidyl arginine deiminase 4-deficient mice with defective NETosis but not by deoxyribonuclease treatment, implicating the cytoplasts for the non-type 2 immune responses to allergen. Neutrophil cytoplasts were also present in mediastinal lymph nodes, and the cytoplasts activated lung dendritic cells in vitro to trigger antigen-specific interleukin-17 (IL-17) production from naïve CD4+ T cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe asthma and high neutrophil counts had detectable NETs and cytoplasts that were positively correlated with IL-17 levels. Together, these translational findings have identified neutrophil cytoplast formation in asthmatic lung inflammation and linked the cytoplasts to T helper 17-mediated neutrophilic inflammation in severe asthma.
Project description:Deficient type I interferon-? and type III interferon-? induction by rhinoviruses has previously been reported in mild/moderate atopic asthmatic adults. No studies have yet investigated if this occurs in severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA). Here, we show that compared with non-allergic healthy control children, bronchial epithelial cells cultured ex vivo from severe therapy resistant atopic asthmatic children have profoundly impaired interferon-? and interferon-? mRNA and protein in response to rhinovirus (RV) and polyIC stimulation. Severe treatment resistant asthmatics also exhibited increased virus load, which negatively correlated with interferon mRNA levels. Furthermore, uninfected cells from severe therapy resistant asthmatic children showed lower levels of Toll-like receptor-3 mRNA and reduced retinoic acid inducible gene and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 mRNA after RV stimulation. These data expand on the original work, suggesting that the innate anti-viral response to RVs is impaired in asthmatic tissues and demonstrate that this is a feature of STRA.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant tumor with a poor outcome that is often positive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GBM patients often have excessive numbers of neutrophils and macrophages near and within the tumor. Here, we characterized the cytokine patterns in the blood of GBM patients with and without Valganciclovir treatment. Furthermore, we determined whether neutrophil activation is related to HCMV status and patient outcome. Blood samples for analyses of cytokines and growth factors were collected from 42 GBM patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 42) and at weeks 12 and 24 after surgery. Blood neutrophils of 28 GBM patients were examined for CD11b expression. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines-including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, interferon-?, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor ?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1were analyzed with a bead-based flow cytometry assay. During the first six months after surgery, neutrophil activity was increased in 12 patients and was unchanged or decreased in 16. Patients with increased neutrophil activity had enhanced IL-12p70, high grade HCMV and a shorter time to tumor progression (TTP) than patients without or decreased neutrophil activity (median TTP; 5.4 vs. 12 months, 95% confidence interval; 1.6-10 vs. 0.1-0.6, hazard ratio = 3 vs. 0.4, p = 0.004). The levels of IL-12p70 were significantly decreased in Valganciclovir treated patients (n = 22, T 12W vs. T 24W, p = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings suggest that neutrophil activation is an early sign of tumor progression in GBM patients.