Project description:The vertebrate genome contains a large number of Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger genes that encode 10 or more C(2)-H(2) zinc finger motifs. Members of this gene family have been proposed to function as transcription factors by binding DNA through their zinc finger region and repressing gene expression via the KRAB domain. To date, however, no Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) and few proteins with 10 or more zinc finger motifs have been shown to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Our laboratory has recently identified KS1, a member of the KRAB-ZFP family that contains 10 different C(2)-H(2) zinc finger motifs, 9 clustered at the C terminus with an additional zinc finger separated by a short linker region. In this study, we used a random oligonucleotide binding assay to identify a 27-bp KS1 binding element (KBE). Reporter assays demonstrate that KS1 represses the expression of promoters containing this DNA sequence. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis reveal that KS1 requires nine C-terminal zinc fingers and the KRAB domain for transcriptional repression through the KBE site, whereas the isolated zinc finger and linker region are dispensable for this function. Additional biochemical assays demonstrate that the KS1 KRAB domain interacts with the KAP-1 corepressor, and mutations that abolish this interaction alleviate KS1-mediated transcriptional repression. Thus, this study provides the first direct evidence that a KRAB-ZFP binds DNA to regulate gene expression and provides insight into the mechanisms used by multiple-zinc-finger proteins to recognize DNA sequences.
Project description:Microbes play a critical role in the global arsenic biogeocycle. Most studies have focused on redox cycling of inorganic arsenic in bacteria and archaea. The parallel cycles of organoarsenical biotransformations are less well characterized. Here we describe organoarsenical biotransformations in the environmental microbe Shewanella putrefaciens. Under aerobic growth conditions, S. putrefaciens reduced the herbicide MSMA (methylarsenate or MAs(V)) to methylarsenite (MAs(III)). Even though it does not contain an arsI gene, which encodes the ArsI C-As lyase, S. putrefaciens demethylated MAs(III) to As(III). It cleaved the C-As bond in aromatic arsenicals such as the trivalent forms of the antimicrobial agents roxarsone (Rox(III)), nitarsone (Nit(III)) and phenylarsenite (PhAs(III)), which have been used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. S. putrefaciens thiolated methylated arsenicals, converting MAs(V) into the more toxic metabolite monomethyl monothioarsenate (MMMTAs(V)), and transformed dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) into dimethylmonothioarsenate (DMMTAs(V)). It also reduced the nitro groups of Nit(V), forming p-aminophenyl arsenate (p-arsanilic acid or p-AsA(V)), and Rox(III), forming 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzylarsonate (3A4HBzAs(V)). Elucidation of organoarsenical biotransformations by S. putrefaciens provides a holistic appreciation of how these environmental pollutants are degraded.
Project description:The study of zinc finger proteins has revealed their potential to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here we report the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of KS1 (KRAB/zinc finger suppressor protein 1), a novel, ubiquitously expressed zinc finger gene initially isolated from a rat pancreas library. KS1 contains 10 C2H2 zinc fingers, a KRAB-A/B motif, and an ID sequence that has been shown previously to participate in growth factor-regulated gene expression. Northern blot analysis using pancreatic cell lines demonstrates that KS1 mRNA is inducible by serum and epidermal growth factor, suggesting a role for this gene in cell growth regulation. Biochemical analysis reveals that KS1 is a nuclear protein containing two transcriptional repressor domains, R1 and R2. R1 corresponds to the KRAB-A motif, whereas R2 represents a novel sequence. Transformation assays using NIH3T3 cells demonstrate that KS1 suppresses transformation by the potent oncogenes Ha-ras, Galpha12, and Galpha13. Deletion of the R1/ KRAB-A domain does not modify the transformation suppressive activity of KS1, whereas deletion of R2 abolishes this function. Thus, KS1 is a novel growth factor-inducible zinc finger transcriptional repressor protein with the potential to protect against neoplastic transformation induced by several oncogenes.
Project description:Introduction:The Shewanella putrefaciens group are ubiquitous microorganisms recently isolated from different freshwater fish species and causing serious health disorders. The purpose of the study was to characterise isolates of the S. putrefaciens group with special emphasis on elucidating serological diversity and determining putative virulence factors. Material and Methods:Isolates collected from freshwater fish (n = 44) and reference strains were used. The identification of bacteria was carried out using biochemical kits and 16S rRNA sequencing. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the S. putrefaciens group. The bacterium's susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, its enzymatic properties, and its adhesion ability to fish cell lines were also tested. Finally, selected isolates were used in challenge experiments in common carp and rainbow trout. Results:Excluding six isolates undeterminable for species, the bacteria were classified to three species: S. putrefaciens, S. xiamenensis, and S. oneidensis, and showed some phenotypic diversity. Fourteen serological variants of the S. putrefaciens group were determined with the newly developed serotyping scheme. Conclusion:Serodiversity may play an important role in the virulence of particular isolates. Further, S. putrefaciens group members adhere to epithelial cells and produce enzymes which may contribute to their virulence. Challenge tests confirmed the pathogenicity of the S. putrefaciens group for fish.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress damages many cellular components such as fatty acids, DNA, and proteins. This damage is implicated in many disease pathologies including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidants like ascorbate (vitamin C, ascorbic acid) have been shown to protect against the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in patients with cancer. In contrast, other data indicate potential tumor-promoting activity of antioxidants, demonstrating a potential temporal benefit of ROS. However, quantifying real-time tumor ROS is currently not feasible, since there is no way to directly probe global tumor ROS. In order to study this ROS-induced damage and design novel therapeutics to prevent its sequelae, the quantitative nature of positron emission tomography (PET) can be harnessed to measure in vivo concentrations of ROS. Therefore, our goal is to develop a novel translational ascorbate-based probe to image ROS in cancer in vivo using noninvasive PET imaging of tumor tissue. The real-time evaluations of ROS state can prove critical in developing new therapies and stratifying patients to therapies that are affected by tumor ROS. METHODS:We designed, synthesized, and characterized a novel ascorbate derivative (E)-5-(2-chloroethylidene)-3-((4-(2-fluoroethoxy)benzyl)oxy)-4-hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (KS1). We used KS1 in an in vitro ROS MitoSOX-based assay in two different head and neck squamous cancer cells (HNSCC) that express different ROS levels, with ascorbate as reference standard. We radiolabeled 18F-KS1 following 18F-based nucleophilic substitution reactions and determined in vitro reactivity and specificity of 18F-KS1 in HNSCC and prostate cancer (PCa) cells. MicroPET imaging and standard biodistribution studies of 18F-KS1 were performed in mice bearing PCa cells. To further demonstrate specificity, we performed microPET blocking experiments using nonradioactive KS1 as a blocker. RESULTS:KS1 was synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR spectra. MitoSOX assay demonstrated good correlations between increasing concentrations of KS1 and ascorbate and increased reactivity in SCC-61 cells (with high ROS levels) versus rSCC-61cells (with low ROS levels). 18F-KS1 was radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (> 94%) and specific activity (~ 100 GBq/μmol) at end of synthesis (EOS). Cell uptake of 18F-KS1 was high in both types of cancer cells, and the uptake was significantly blocked by nonradioactive KS1, and the ROS blocker, superoxide dismutase (SOD) demonstrating specificity. Furthermore, 18F-KS1 uptake was increased in PCa cells under hypoxic conditions, which have been shown to generate high ROS. Initial in vivo tumor uptake studies in PCa tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that 18F-KS1 specifically bound to tumor, which was significantly blocked (threefold) by pre-injecting unlabeled KS1. Furthermore, biodistribution studies in the same tumor-bearing mice showed high tumor to muscle (target to nontarget) ratios. CONCLUSION:This work demonstrates the strong preliminary support of 18F-KS1, both in vitro and in vivo for imaging ROS in cancer. If successful, this work will provide a new paradigm to directly probe real-time oxidative stress levels in vivo. Our work could enhance precision medicine approaches to treat cancer, as well as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases affected by ROS.