Project description:Systemic sclerosis (SSc) shows complex clinical manifestations including progressive skin and internal organ fibrosis. SSc can be divided into 'intrinsic subsets' by gene expression suggesting patient-specific heterogeneity in pathogenesis or temporal evolution of disease. Here we validate these subsets using an independent patient population, and test whether the genes vary over time with patients changing subsets as disease progresses, or if the genes are a stable feature of the patients within each subset. Skin biopsies were analyzed from 13 dSSc patients enrolled in an open label study of rituximab, 9 dSSc patients not treated with rituximab, and 9 healthy controls. These data recapitulate the patient 'intrinsic subsets' described previously with gene expression associated with cell proliferation, inflammatory processes, and a normal-like group. Serial skin biopsies showed consistent and non-progressing gene expression. We were unable to detect significant differences in gene expression before and after rituximab treatment, consistent with an apparent lack of clinical response. Serial biopsies from each patient stayed within the same gene expression subset regardless of treatment regimen or the time point at which they were taken. This demonstrates the intrinsic subsets are an inherent, reproducible and stable feature of SSc that is independent of disease duration. Skin biopsies were analyzed from 13 dSSc patients enrolled in an open label study of rituximab, 9 dSSc patients not treated with rituximab, and 9 healthy controls.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level in Pseudozyma antarctica T-34, compared to Ustilago maydis UM521. To clarify the transcriptomic characteristics of Pseudozyma antarctica under the conditions of high MEL production, a DNA microarray of both the strains, Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 and Ustilago maydis UM521 was prepared and analyzed the transcriptomes. A DNA chip study using mRNA from the cultures of Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 and Ustilago maydis UM521 demonstrated the gene expression level of each strain.
Project description:Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal and nickel-exposed skin were obtained from 7 nickel-allergic patients and 5 non-allergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema: 0h, 7h, 48h and 96h. Each gene expression profile was analysed by hybridization to high density oligonucletide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found to be differentially expressed in the patients over time revealed that the patient samples may be categorised into two groups: An early time point group (0h and 7h) and a late time point group (48h and 96h). Compared to the early time points, late time point skin samples were characterised by the up-regulation of inflammatory molecules including genes involved in the class I antigen presenting pathway and genes involved in lymphocyte adhesion and motility ; Correspondence analysis including both patients and controls revealed three distinct groups: i) the control group, ii) the early time point patient group (0h and 7h) and iii) the late time point patient group (48h and 96h). Experiment Overall Design: For the microarray study, 7 nickel-allergic patients and 5 non-allergic controls were recruited. All subjects were female. The skin covering the upper nates was exposed to nickel delivered during a patch test. Skin biopsies were taken to generate a time-series. Skin was exposed to nickel for 0h, 7h, 48h and 96h. Experiment Overall Design: All nickel allergic patients reacted with visible eczama at the 48h and 96h time-points. No eczema was vissible at the 0h or 7h time-points. Control subjects did not show visible eczema at any time-point. Experiment Overall Design: RNA was extracted from the skin biopsies and 34 biopsies yielded RNA of sufficient quantity and quality for micro-array analysis.
Project description:In this study, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach was employed to analyze the serial passaged human skin fibroblast （CCD-1079Sk） cells, within 3305 proteins quantified. Of which, 372 proteins were significantly changed in early passage(P6), middle passage (P12) and later passage (P21), with a time-dependent decrease or increase tendency. Then, of which, SMC4 was selected for further biological validation. The results confirmed that the expression of SMC4 was significantly down-regulated in a time-dependent manner in the subculture of human skin fibroblasts (HSFb) with Western Blot experiment.
Project description:Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing unprecedented changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific. The study was carried out at the Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz (EACF, 62°04’S, 58°21’W), located in Martel Inlet, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which is part of the South Shetlands Archipelago in Maritime Antarctica. It is a medium sized research station with a population of 10 to 15 people during the winter months (March to November) and about 60 people during the austral summer months (November to March). During the austral summers of 2006 – 2007 and 2008 – 2009, the vascular plants D. antarctica or C. quitensis were sampled, where both plants were found, in triplicate at six different sites: A – Arctowski (2006 – 2007), Q – Quimica (2006 – 2007), I – Ipanema (2006 – 2007), M – North Mountain (2008 – 2009), D – Demay Point (2008 – 2009), C – Copacabana (2008 – 2009) (Figure 1). Points A, C and D were located inside an environmental protected area. Point A is close to the Arctowski Polish Station and next to a colony of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), point C is next to the USA summer station Copacabana in a Gentoo penguin (P. papua) colony, and point D is near to a Polish refuge next to a colony of Chinstrap penguins (P. antarcticus). At point I, there were no penguin colonies present, but this section was used as a nesting site by local species of flying birds. Point Q was located in the vicinity of the EACF; thus there has been (and continues to be) an intense anthropogenic influence on this spot, which is not the case at the other sampling sites. Point M was located at the top of North Mountain, around 200 m altitude. This site has no influence from penguin colonies and only a few nests of skua (Catharacta sp.) were observed. At each sampling site, triplicate soil samples were taken for chemical and biological analyses, with the exception of the Arctowski site (A) where we only took two replicates. Each vascular plant sample was frozen (-20°C) at the EACF.
Project description:The epidermis is as a highly regenerative barrier protecting organisms from environmental insults, including ultraviolet radiation, the main cause of skin cancer and skin aging. Here we show that time-restricted feeding (RF) shifts the phase and alters the amplitude of the skin circadian clock and affects the expression of approximately 10% of the skin transcriptome. Furthermore, a strikingly large number of skin-expressed genes are acutely regulated by food intake. While the circadian clock is required for daily rhythms in DNA synthesis in epidermal stem cells, RF-induced shifts in clock phase do not alter the phase of DNA synthesis. However, both the expression of the key DNA repair gene Xpa, and the diurnal sensitivity to UVB-induced DNA damage, are altered by RF. Together our findings indicate an unexpected regulation of skin function by time of feeding and emphasize the important link between circadian rhythm, food intake, and skin health. Overall design: Totally 24 samples were sequenced. One sample for each time point and 8 time points for each feeding group. Each sample was pooled from 2-4 biological replicates.