Project description:Temperature is a master environmental factor that limits the geographical distribution of species, especially in ectotherms. To address challenges in biodiversity conservation under ongoing climate change, it is essential to characterize relevant functional limitations and adaptive genomic content at population and species levels. Here, we present evidence for adaptive divergence in cardiac function and genomic regions in redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) populations from desert and montane streams. Cardiac phenotypes of individual fish were measured in the field with a custom-built electrocardiogram apparatus. Maximum heart rate and its rate limiting temperature during acute warming were significantly higher in fish that have evolved in the extreme of a desert climate compared to a montane climate. Association mapping with 526,301 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome revealed signatures of thermal selection both within and among ecotypes. Among desert and montane populations, 435 SNPs were identified as putative outliers under natural selection and 20 of these loci showed significant association with average summer water temperatures among populations. Phenotypes for cardiac performance were variable within each ecotype, and 207 genomic regions were strongly associated with either maximum heart rate or rate limiting temperatures among individuals. Annotation of significant loci provided candidate genes that underlie thermal adaptation, including pathways associated with cardiac function (IRX5, CASQ1, CAC1D, and TITIN), neuroendocrine system (GPR17 and NOS), and stress response (SERPH). By integrating comparative physiology and population genomics, results here advance our knowledge on evolutionary processes of thermal adaptation in aquatic ectotherms.
Project description:Numerous self-sustaining naturalized or introduced populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are widely distributed throughout the freshwaters of southern Chile. In this study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) marker was conducted to investigate the level of genetic divergence among populations and their phylogenetic relationships with respect to native lineages. This information provided a framework to interpret the genetic structure and origin that was shaped during historical trout introduction efforts. To this end, we analyzed eleven naturalized populations of lakes and rivers from five basins. The CR marker revealed five haplotypes. The overall haplotype (H) and nucleotide (?) diversities were 0.684 ± 0.030 and 0.00460 ± 0.00012, respectively. Global F ST was 0.169, with several pairwise F ST estimates showing significant differences (P < 0.05). The exact test of population differentiation corroborated this result (P < 0.001). Significant geographic structure was found (P < 0.05), with variations explained primarily by differences within populations (61.65%) and among group basins (20.82%). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis resolved two distinct clades with medium bootstrap support when naturalized populations were aligned in conjunction with reference native lineages. The haplotype network revealed a close association between naturalized populations and four main haplotypes representative of three native ecotypes or lineages from western North America (rainbow trout, steelhead trout and redband trout). These results indicate a genetic population structuring for naturalized rainbow trout from southern Chile and an origin probably represented by multiple lineages sources. Thus, mitochondrial DNA data strongly suggest that stocking of rainbow trout from different origins may have occurred during or after the initial introduction efforts.
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC6933019 | BioStudies
Project description:lcWGR of redband trout populations
| PRJNA600878 | ENA
Project description:Genetic mechanism of thermal adaptation in redband trout
Project description:BACKGROUND:As ectothermic organisms have evolved to differing aquatic climates, the molecular basis of thermal adaptation is a key area of research. In this study, we tested for differential transcriptional response of ecologically divergent populations of redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) that have evolved in desert and montane climates. Each pure strain and their F1 cross were reared in a common garden environment and exposed over four weeks to diel water temperatures that were similar to those experienced in desert climates within the species' range. Gill tissues were collected from the three strains of fish (desert, montane, F1 crosses) at the peak of heat stress and tested for mRNA expression differences across the transcriptome with RNA-seq. RESULTS:Strong differences in transcriptomic response to heat stress were observed across strains confirming that fish from desert environments have evolved diverse mechanisms to cope with stressful environments. As expected, a large number of total transcripts (12,814) were differentially expressed in the study (FDR???0.05) with 2310 transcripts in common for all three strains, but the desert strain had a larger number of unique differentially expressed transcripts (2875) than the montane (1982) or the F1 (2355) strain. Strongly differentiated genes (>4 fold change and FDR???0.05) were particularly abundant in the desert strain (824 unique contigs) relative to the other two strains (montane?=?58; F1?=?192). CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated patterns of acclimation (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) within strains and evolutionary adaptation among strains in numerous genes throughout the transcriptome. Key stress response genes such as molecular chaperones (i.e., heat shock proteins) had adaptive patterns of gene expression among strains, but also a much higher number of metabolic and cellular process genes were differentially expressed in the desert strain demonstrating these biological pathways are critical for thermal adaptation to warm aquatic climates. The results of this study further elucidate the molecular basis for thermal adaptation in aquatic ecosystems and extend the potential for identifying genes that may be critical for adaptation to changing climates.
Project description:In this project, effects of chronic temperature changes on the transcriptome of the rainbow trout heart (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined. Ectothermic animals of north-temperate latitudes experience large seasonal changes in temperature which strongly affect the rate of body functions. To compensate for the effects of temperature changes ectotherms can respond to chronic temperature changes by increasing the quantity of tissue or enzyme needed for different physiological tasks, or by expressing proteins isoforms which are more appropriate for the new thermal conditions. On the other hand, proteins which are needed in lesser amounts in the new thermal regime could be depressed or down-regulated. Although expression of proteins can be changed by multiple mechanisms during synthesis and degradation, temperature dependent changes in transcription of genes is probably the most important factor in modifying the proteome of the tissues. Rainbow trout are active throughout their thermal tolerance range (0-25°C). Maintenance of adequate cardiac function at different thermal conditions requires a thorough change of the cardiac phenotype which appears as compensatory changes in relative heart mass, energy metabolism, nervous and humoral control of cardiac contractility and in electrical and mechanical properties of the trout heart. Such an extensive structural and functional remodeling of the heart probably necessitates both qualitative and quantitative changes among the numerous macromolecules which constitute the cardiac phenotype and cannot, therefore, be solely based on posttranslational modification of proteins but is expected to require differential gene expression. As a power supply of the circulatory system, the heart is in the focal point of physiological plasticity and sets limits for the activity level of the animal in different thermal conditions. Although several aspects of heart function have been studied in thermally acclimated fish and a number of structural changes have been noticed on exposure to different temperatures, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in chronic thermal stress of the fish heart are only partially elucidated. An interesting and poorly examined feature of the cold-acclimated phenotype of the trout heart is the increased heart mass which attenuates the depressive effect of low temperature on cardiac pump function. The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple tissues which together provide the system all necessary qualifications for cardiac pump function. In addition to the contractile and metabolic machinery of the cardiac myocytes, the amount and quality of the extracellular matrix also contribute to the properties of the heart as a muscular pump. Due to the complexity of the heart an enormous amounts of research efforts are needed to find out and examine all crucial aspects of cardiac plasticity required for thermal acclimation. In this regard the screening of gene expression by cDNA micro arrays might provide a broader view to genomic basis of cardiac remodeling under changing temperatures and aid to reveal the candidate genes which are important for thermal acclimation and which might remain unnoticed by traditional biochemical and physiological methods. In the present study we the steady-state effects of temperature acclimation on gene expression of the rainbow trout heart were screened by micro array analysis.
Project description:Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta) living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1) the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2) the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study populations may become extinct by 2100, depicting the gloomy fate of thermally-sensitive species occurring at thermal range margins under limited potential for adaptation and dispersal.