Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) has developed elegant strategies to utilize cellular proteins and pathways to promote replication and evade the host antiviral response. Identification of these sabotaged host factors could increase the number of potential antiviral drug targets. Here, IAV A/PR/8/34 (PR8)- and A/California/04/2009-infected A549 and 293T cells displayed differential virus replication. To determine the host cellular responses of A549 and 293T cells to IAV infection, RNA-seq was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Our data revealed that IAV-infected A549 cells activated stronger virus-sensing signals and highly expressed cytokines, which play significant roles in initiating the innate immune and inflammatory responses. In addition, IAV-infected 293T cells displayed weak immune signaling and cytokine production. Remarkably, IL-17A and associated genes were highly enriched in IAV-infected 293T cells. Furthermore, IL-17A can partially facilitate A549 cell infection by the PR8 strain and PR8-infected IL-17A knock-out mice consistently exhibited decreased weight loss and reduced lung immunopathology, as compared to controls. This work uncovered the differential responses of cells infected with two H1N1 IAV strains and the potential roles of IL-17A in modulating virus infection.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is widespread double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus that establishes life-long latency and causes diverse severe symptoms. The mechanisms of HSV-1 infection and HSV-1's interactions with various host cells have been studied and reviewed extensively. Type I interferons were secreted by host cells upon HSV infection and play a vital role in controlling virus proliferation. A few studies, however, have focused on HSV-1 infection without the presence of interferon (IFN) signaling. In this study, HEK 293T cells with low toll-like receptor (TLR) and stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING) expression were infected with HSV-1 and subjected to a quantitative proteomic analysis. By using a subcellular fractionation strategy and high-performance mass spectrometry, a total of 6607 host proteins were quantified, of which 498 proteins were differentially regulated. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that multiple signaling pathways might be involved in HSV-1 infection. A further functional study indicated the role of Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein 2 (CHCHD2), and Tripartite motif-containing protein 27 (TRIM27) in inhibiting viral DNA replication and proliferation. Our data provide a global view of host responses to HSV-1 infection in HEK 293T cells and identify the proteins involved in the HSV-1 infection process.
Project description:Like herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 mRNA, HSV-2 ICP0 mRNA is predicted to be targeted by a host neuron-specific microRNA, miR-138. This study was designed to confirm the interaction between HSV-2 ICP0 mRNA and miR-138, and to identify other potential viral and host targets of miR-138 during HSV-2 infection. We performed PAR-CLIP on HSV-2 infected 293T cells overexpressing miR-138 in comparisin to control 293T cells. The results confirmed ICP0 as miR-138's targets, and also identified some other potential viral and host targets of miR-138. Overall design: Using previously generated 293T cells transduced with lentivirus expressing miR-138 and control 293T cells transduced with an empty vector, we infected these cells with HSV-2 for 4 hours at a multiplification of infection (MOI) of 1, and then harvested the cells for PAR-CLIP analysis. Sites with differential reads between the two kinds of cells are identified as potential target sites of miR-138.
Project description:During primary infection, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) replicates in epithelial cells and enters neurites to infect neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Growth factors and attractive and repulsive directional cues influence neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the activity of such cues to increase neurite outgrowth. To test this hypothesis, we exposed sensory neurons to nerve growth factor (NGF) and mock- or HSV-2-infected HEK-293T cells, since they express repellents of neurite outgrowth. We show that HEK-293T cells secrete factors that inhibit neurite outgrowth, while infection with HSV-2 strains MS and 333 reduces this repelling phenotype, increasing neurite numbers. The HSV-2-mediated restoration of neurite outgrowth required the activity of NGF. In the absence of infection, however, NGF did not overcome the repulsion mediated by HEK-293T cells. We previously showed that recombinant, soluble glycoprotein G of HSV-2 (rSgG2) binds and enhances NGF activity, increasing neurite outgrowth. However, the effect of gG2 during infection has not been investigated. Therefore, we addressed whether gG2 contributes to overcoming neurite outgrowth repulsion. To do so, we generated viruses lacking gG2 expression and complemented them by exogenous expression of gG2. Overall, our results suggest that HSV-2 infection of nonneuronal cells reduces their repelling effect on neurite outgrowth in an NGF-dependent manner. gG2 contributed to this phenotype, but it was not the only factor. The enhanced neurite outgrowth may facilitate HSV-2 spread from epithelial cells into neurons expressing NGF receptors and increase HSV-2-mediated pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent human pathogen that establishes lifelong latency in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Colonization of neurons is required for HSV-2 persistence and pathogenesis. The viral and cellular factors required for efficient infection of neurons are not fully understood. We show here that nonneuronal cells repel neurite outgrowth of sensory neurons, while HSV-2 infection overcomes this inhibition and, rather, stimulates neurite outgrowth. HSV-2 glycoprotein G and nerve growth factor contribute to this phenotype, which may attract neurites to sites of infection and facilitate virus spread to neurons. Understanding the mechanisms that modulate neurite outgrowth and facilitate HSV-2 infection of neurons might foster the development of therapeutics to reduce HSV-2 colonization of the nervous system and provide insights on neurite outgrowth and regeneration.
Project description:For Samples 1-8 and 11-18: The innate immune sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) detects double-stranded RNA derived from RNA viruses, and recent studies have demonstrated that RIG-I also plays a role in the antiviral response to DNA viruses. To identify the physiological RNA species that are recognized by RIG-I during HSV-1 infection, we purified the RNAs that co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged RIG-I in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells that had been infected with a recombinant HSV-1 (hereafter referred to as HSV-1 mut) containing a mutation (K220A) in the viral serine/threonine protein kinase US3 that abolishes its catalytic activity, as the viral kinase is known to antagonize type-I IFN responses. As controls, RNA species bound to FLAG-RIG-I in uninfected cells and RNA bound to FLAG-GFP from both HSV-1 mut-infected and uninfected cells were also purified. RIG-I-bound RNA and total RNA extracted from uninfected and HSV-1 mut-infected cells were analyzed by RNAseq, and the resulting sequences were mapped to both the HSV-1F-strain and human genome (hg38). This analysis revealed that several human transcripts were highly enriched in the RIG-I-bound fraction from infected cells; in contrast, the enrichment of viral sequences was low. The cellular transcripts that were most abundant in the RIG-I fraction were predominantly non-coding RNAs from different subclasses, as well as some coding RNAs. For Samples 9 and 10: HSV-1 infection is known to induces changes in the transcriptional profile of the infected cell. To analyze global changes in RNA transcript levels in infected cells, total RNA was extracted from HEK 293T cells that were infected with wild-type (WT) HSV-1. For comparison, total RNA was extracted from HEK 293T cells that remained uninfected. Next, RNAseq analysis was performed. The resulting sequences were mapped to the human genome, and gene inductions were calculated and normalized to uninfected samples to determine changes in gene expression upon infection. Overall design: Cells, which were not infected or infected with either wildtype HSV-1 or mutated HSV-1 were either subjected to a pulldown isolating RLR/GFP associated RNA (8 samples) or the corresponding total RNA (8 samples) was extracted from the infected cells and sequenced. Additionally, non-transfected cells were infected and total RNA extracted and sequenced (2 samples)
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) transcription is mediated by cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Recent studies investigating how Pol II transcription of host genes is altered after HSV-1 are conflicting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies suggest that Pol II is almost completely removed from host genes at 4 h postinfection (hpi), while 4-thiouridine (4SU) labeling experiments show that host transcription termination is extended at 7 hpi, implying that a significant amount of Pol II remains associated with host genes in infected cells. To address this discrepancy, we used precision nuclear run-on analysis (PRO-seq) to determine the location of Pol II to single-base-pair resolution in combination with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis at 3 hpi. HSV-1 decreased Pol II on approximately two-thirds of cellular genes but increased Pol II on others. For more than 85% of genes for which transcriptional termination could be statistically assessed, Pol II was displaced to positions downstream of the normal termination zone, suggesting extensive termination defects. Pol II amounts at the promoter, promoter-proximal pause site, and gene body were also modulated in a gene-specific manner. qRT-PCR of selected RNAs showed that HSV-1-induced extension of the termination zone strongly correlated with decreased RNA and mRNA accumulation. However, HSV-1-induced increases of Pol II occupancy on genes without termination zone extension correlated with increased cytoplasmic mRNA. Functional grouping of genes with increased Pol II occupancy suggested an upregulation of exosome secretion and downregulation of apoptosis, both of which are potentially beneficial to virus production.IMPORTANCE This study provides a map of RNA polymerase II location on host genes after infection with HSV-1 with greater detail than previous ChIP-seq studies and rectifies discrepancies between ChIP-seq data and 4SU labeling experiments with HSV-1. The data show the effects that a given change in RNA Pol II location on host genes has on the abundance of different RNA types, including nuclear, polyadenylated mRNA and cytoplasmic, polyadenylated mRNA. It gives a clearer understanding of how HSV-1 augments host transcription of some genes to provide an environment favorable to HSV-1 replication.
Project description:Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a powerful technique for dissecting the complexity of normal and diseased tissues, enabling characterization of cell diversity and heterogeneous phenotypic states in unprecedented detail. However, this technology has been underutilized for exploring the interactions between the host cell and viral pathogens in latently-infected cells. Herein, we use scRNA-seq and single-molecule sensitivity fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH) technologies to investigate host single-cell transcriptome changes upon the reactivation of a human neurotropic virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). We identify the stress sensor Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 beta (Gadd45b) as a critical antiviral host factor that regulates HSV-1 reactivation events in a subpopulation of latently-infected primary neurons. We show that distinct subcellular localization of Gadd45b correlates with the viral late gene expression program, as well as the expression of the viral transcription factor, ICP4. We propose that a hallmark of a "successful" or "aborted" HSV-1 reactivation state in primary neurons is determined by a unique subcellular localization signature of the stress sensor Gadd45b.
Project description:In order to evaluate the influence of CDK5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) on Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) replication, we constructed two recombinant adeno-associated-virus 2 (rAAV2) vectors encoding CIP fused with cyan-fluorescent-protein (CFP), with or without nuclear localization signal. A third vector encoding non-fused CIP and CFP was also constructed. HeLa and HEK 293T cells were infected with the rAAV-CIP vectors at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5000, in the absence or presence of a recombinant HSV-1 that encodes a yellow-fluorescent-protein (rHSV48Y; MOI?=?1). Cells co-infected with rHSV48Y and rAAV vectors that did not express the CIP gene (rAAV-CFP-Neo) served as controls. At 24?h after infection, the effect of CIP on rHSV48Y replication was assessed by PCR, qRT-PCR, Western-blot, flow-cytometry, epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. We show that in cultures co-infected with rAAV-CFP-Neo, 27% of the CFP-positive cells present rHSV48Y replication compartments. By contrast, in cultures co-infected with CIP-encoding rAAV2 vectors and rHSV48Y only 6-20% of the cells positive for CIP showed rHSV48Y replication compartments, depending on the CIP variant. Flow-cytometry showed that less than 40% of the rHSV48Y/rAAV-CIP, and more than 75% of rHSV48Y/rAAV-CFP-Neo co-infected cells were positive for both transgene products. The microscopy and flow-cytometry data support the hypothesis that CIP is inhibiting HSV-1 replication.
Project description:The innate immune response is the first line defense against viral infections. Novel genes involved in this system are continuing to emerge. SLC15A3, a proton-coupled histidine and di-tripeptide transporter that was previously found in lysosomes, has been reported to inhibit chikungunya viral replication in host cells. In this study, we found that SLC15A3 was significantly induced by DNA virus herpes simplex virus-1(HSV-1) in monocytes from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Aside from monocytes, it can also be induced by HSV-1 in 293T, HeLa cells, and HaCaT cells. Overexpression of SLC15A3 in 293T cells inhibits HSV-1 replication and enhances type I and type III interferon (IFN) responses, while silencing SLC15A3 leads to enhanced HSV-1 replication with reduced IFN production. Moreover, we found that SLC15A3 interacted with MAVS and STING and potentiated MAVS- and STING-mediated IFN production. These results demonstrate that SLC15A3 participates in anti-HSV-1 innate immune responses by regulating MAVS- and STING-mediated signaling pathways.