Project description:Investigation of RBPMS role in post-transcriptional control of mRNAs in rat PAC1 pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs). PolyA mRNA-Seq was carried out after RBPMS knockdown in differentiated PAC1 cells and after inducible RBPMS-A overexpression in dedifferentiated (proliferative) PAC1 cells. Overall design: mRNA-Seq of RBPMS knockdown: Control siRNA and RBPMS-specific siRNA knockdown; and overexpression: RBPMS-A inducible lentiviral population without and with Dox induction. All experiments were conducted in triplicates.
Project description:Background:While chemerin has been shown to increase proliferation and migration of systemic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contributing therefore to the development of hypertension, this remains to be clarified for the pulmonary circulation. Methods:Expression of chemerin and its three receptors (CMKRL1, CCRL2, GPR1) was examined by immunohistochemistry and RTq-PCR in lungs, pulmonary artery, and thoracic aorta from Wistar rats. Primary cultured rat pulmonary artery and thoracic aorta SMCs treated with recombinant chemerin (tested from 5.10-9 to 10-7 mol/L) were assessed for proliferation and migration (both with 10-7 mol/L endothelin-1), as well as for staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Results:In pulmonary artery and thoracic aorta, CMKLR1 expression was detected in both endothelial cells and SMCs. In primary cultured pulmonary artery SMCs, chemerin and its three receptors were expressed, and CMKLR1 expression was higher than those of CCRL2 and GPR1. Chemerin added to endothelin-1 increased pulmonary artery SMC proliferation, while chemerin or endothelin-1 alone did not. This effect was less pronounced in thoracic aorta SMCs. Chemerin induced pulmonary artery and thoracic aorta SMC migration, which was exacerbated by endothelin-1 and more pronounced in thoracic aorta SMCs. Chemerin concentration-dependently reduced staurosporine-induced apoptosis in both pulmonary artery and thoracic aorta SMCs. In pulmonary artery SMCs, endothelin-1 treatment increased the expression of CMKLR1, CCRL2, and GPR1, while these expressions were not altered in thoracic aorta SMCs. Conclusion:Chemerin/CMKRL1 signaling, in conjunction with a key mediator in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertensive diseases, endothelin-1, stimulated proliferation and migration, and increased resistance to apoptosis in rat primary cultured pulmonary artery SMCs. Our results suggest that this signaling could play a role in pulmonary artery remodeling observed in pulmonary hypertension.
Project description:RATIONALE: Senescence of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs) caused by telomere shortening or oxidative stress may contribute to pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether cell senescence contributes to pulmonary vessel remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 124 patients with COPD investigated by right heart catheterization, we found a negative correlation between leukocyte telomere length and pulmonary hypertension severity. In-depth investigations of lung vessels and derived cultured PA-SMCs showed greater severity of remodeling and increases in senescent p16-positive and p21-positive PA-SMCs and proliferating Ki67-stained cells in 14 patients with COPD compared to 13 age-matched and sex-matched control subjects who smoke. Cultured PA-SMCs from COPD patients displayed accelerated senescence, with fewer cell population doublings, an increased percentage of ?-galactosidase-positive cells, shorter telomeres, and higher p16 protein levels at an early cell passage compared to PA-SMCs from controls. Both in situ and in vitro PA-SMC senescence criteria correlated closely with the degree of pulmonary vessel wall hypertrophy. Because senescent PA-SMCs stained for p16 and p21 were virtually confined to the media near the Ki67-positive cells, which predominated in the neointima and hypertrophied media, we evaluated whether senescent cells affected normal PA-SMC functions. We found that senescent PA-SMCs stimulated the growth and migration of normal target PA-SMCs through the production and release of paracrine soluble and insoluble factors. CONCLUSION: PA-SMC senescence is an important contributor to the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling that underlies pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung disease.
Project description:Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressive devastating disease characterized by excessive proliferation of the Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (PASMCs). Studies suggest that PAH and cancers share an apoptosis-resistant state featuring excessive cell proliferation. MicroRNA-206 (miR-206) is known to regulate proliferation and is implicated in various types of cancers. However, the role of miR-206 in PAH has not been studied. In this study, it is hypothesized that miR-206 could play a role in the proliferation of PASMCs. In the present study, the expression patterns of miR-206 were investigated in normal and hypertensive mouse PASMCs. The effects of miR-206 in modulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and smooth muscle cell markers in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs) were investigated in vitro. miR-206 expression in mouse PASMCs was correlated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure. Reduction of miR-206 levels in hPASMCs causes increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis and these effects were reversed by the overexpression of miR-206. miR-206 over expression also increased the levels of smooth muscle cell differentiation markers ?-smooth muscle actin and calponin implicating its importance in the differentiation of SMCs. miR-206 overexpression down regulated Notch-3 expression, which is key a factor in PAH development. These results suggest that miR-206 is a potential regulator of proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of PASMCs, and that it could be used as a novel treatment strategy in PAH.
Project description:Excess and ectopic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, but underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. For instance, pulmonary hypertension (PH) or elevated pulmonary artery blood pressure is a devastating disease with distal extension of smooth muscle to normally unmuscularized pulmonary arterioles. We identify novel SMC progenitors that are located at the pulmonary arteriole muscular-unmuscular border and express both SMC markers and the undifferentiated mesenchyme marker platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?). We term these cells "primed" because in hypoxia-induced PH, they express the pluripotency factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and in each arteriole, one of them migrates distally, dedifferentiates, and clonally expands, giving rise to the distal SMCs. Furthermore, hypoxia-induced expression of the ligand PDGF-B regulates primed cell KLF4 expression, and enhanced PDGF-B and KLF4 levels are required for distal arteriole muscularization and PH. Finally, in PH patients, KLF4 is markedly up-regulated in pulmonary arteriole smooth muscle, especially in proliferating SMCs. In sum, we have identified a pool of SMC progenitors that are critical for the pathogenesis of PH, and perhaps other vascular disorders, and therapeutic strategies targeting this cell type promise to have profound implications.
Project description:Analysis of hypoxia-exposed human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells to identify the commonly regulated microRNAs by hypoxia. Results provide insight into the regulatory mechanism of hypoxic responses in vascular smooth muscle cells. Overall design: microRNA expression profiles of the human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells after exposure to hypoxia by Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Analysis of hypoxia-exposed human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells to identify the commonly regulated genes by hypoxia. Results provide insight into the regulatory mechanism of hypoxic responses in vascular smooth muscle cells. Overall design: mRNA expression profiles of the human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells after exposure to hypoxia by Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:The chronic phase of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with vascular remodeling, especially thickening of the smooth muscle layer of large pulmonary arteries and muscularization of small pulmonary vessels, which normally have no associated smooth muscle. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to induce proliferation and hypertrophy of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), and may be important for in vivo pulmonary vascular remodeling. Here, we show that 5-HT stimulates migration of pulmonary artery PASMC. Treatment with 5-HT for 16h increased migration of PASMC up to four-fold as monitored in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Increased migratory responses were associated with cellular morphological changes and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. 5-HT-induced alterations in morphology were previously shown in our laboratory to require cAMP [Lee SL, Fanburg BL. Serotonin produces a configurational change of cultured smooth muscle cells that is associated with elevation of intracellular cAMP. J Cell Phys 1992;150(2):396-405], and the 5-HT4 receptor was pharmacologically determined to be the primary activator of cAMP in bovine PASMC [Becker BN, Gettys TW, Middleton JP, Olsen CL, Albers FJ, Lee SL, et al. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin-responsive 5-hydroxytryptamine4-like receptor expressed in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Mol Pharmacol 1992;42(5):817-25]. We examined the role of the 5-HT4 receptor and cAMP in 5-HT-induced bovine PASMC migration. PASMC express 5-HT4 receptor mRNA, and a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist and a cAMP antagonist completely blocked 5-HT-induced cellular migration. Consistent with our previous report that a cAMP-dependent Cl(-) channel is required for 5-HT-induced morphological changes in PASMC, phenylanthranilic acid, a Cl(-) channel blocker, inhibited actin cytoskeletal reorganization and migration produced by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT stimulates PASMC migration and associated cytoskeletal reorganization through the 5-HT4 receptor and cAMP activation of a chloride channel.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is one of the most devastating cardiovascular diseases worldwide and it draws much attention from numerous scientists. As an indispensable part of pulmonary artery, smooth muscle cells are worthy of being carefully investigated. To elucidate the pathogenesis of PH, several theories focusing on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), such as hyperproliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and cancer theory, have been proposed and widely studied. Here, we tried to summarize the studies, concentrating on the role of PASMC in the development of PH, feasible molecular basis to intervene, and potential treatment to PH.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell-signaling processes in response to various ligands and play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study reports that interleukin-22 (IL-22) elicits signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through a ROS-dependent mechanism. We find that pulmonary artery SMCs express IL-22 receptor alpha 1 and that IL-22 activates STAT3 through this receptor. IL-22-induced signaling is found to be mediated by NADPH oxidase, as indicated by the observations that the inhibition and siRNA knock-down of this enzyme inhibit IL-22 signaling. IL-22 triggers the oxidative modifications of proteins through protein carbonylation and protein glutathionylation. Mass spectrometry identified some proteins that are carbonylated in response to IL-22 stimulation, including ?-enolase, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein, mitochondrial 60kDa heat shock protein, and cytoplasmic 2 actin and determined that ?-tubulin is glutathionylated. Protein glutathionylation and STAT3 phosphorylation are enhanced by the siRNA knock-down of glutaredoxin, while IL-22-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation is suppressed by knocking down thioredoxin interacting protein, an inhibitor of thioredoxin. IL-22 is also found to promote the growth of SMCs via NADPH oxidase. In rats, pulmonary hypertension is found to be associated with increased smooth muscle IL-22 expression. These results show that IL-22 promotes the growth of pulmonary vascular SMCs via a signaling mechanism that involves NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidation.