Project description:The molecular bases of aphid virulence to aphid crop plant resistance genes are poorly understood. The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, (Kurdjumov), and the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), are global pest of cereal crops. Each species damages barley, oat, rye and wheat, but S. graminum includes fescue, maize, rice and sorghum in its host range. This study was conducted to compare and contrast the transcriptomes of S. graminum biotype I and D. noxia biotype 1 when each ingested phloem from leaves of varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., containing no aphid resistance (Dn0), resistance to D. noxia biotype 1 (Dn4), or resistance to both D. noxia biotype 1 and S. graminum biotype I (Dn7, wheat genotype 94M370). Gene ontology enrichments, k-means analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that 94M370 plants containing the Dn7 D. noxia resistance gene from rye had stronger effects on the global transcriptional profiles of S. graminum and D. noxia relative to those fed Dn4 plants. S. graminum responds to ingestion of phloem sap from 94M370 plants by expression of unigenes coding for proteins involved in DNA and RNA repair, and delayed tissue and structural development. In contrast, D. noxia displays a completely different transcriptome after ingesting phloem sap from Dn4 or 94M370 plants, consisting of unigenes involved primarily in detoxification, nutrient acquisition and structural development. These variations in transcriptional responses of D. noxia and S. graminum suggest that the underlying evolutionary mechanism(s) of virulence in these aphids are likely species specific, even in cases of cross resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Schizaphis graminum is one of the most important and devastating cereal aphids worldwide, and its feeding can cause chlorosis and necrosis in wheat. However, little information is available on the wheat defence responses triggered by S. graminum feeding at the molecular level. RESULTS:Here, we collected and analysed transcriptome sequencing data from leaf tissues of wheat infested with S. graminum at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48?hpi (hours post infestation). A total of 44,835 genes were either up- or downregulated and differed significantly in response to aphid feeding. The expression levels of a number of genes (9761 genes) were significantly altered within 2 hpi and continued to change during the entire 48?h experiment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in photosynthesis and light harvesting, and the total chlorophyll content in wheat leaves was also significantly reduced after S. graminum infestation at 24 and 48?hpi. However, a number of related genes of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling pathway and MAPK-WRKY pathway were significantly upregulated at early feeding time points (2 and 6 hpi). In addition, the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, were rapidly increased at 2, 6 and 12 hpi. DAB staining results showed that S. graminum feeding induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation at the feeding sites at 2 hpi, and increased H2O2 production was detected with the increases in aphid feeding time. Pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, repressed the H2O2 accumulation and expression levels of SA-associated defence genes in wheat. CONCLUSIONS:Our transcriptomic analysis revealed that defence-related pathways and oxidative stress in wheat were rapidly induced within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. Additionally, NADPH oxidase plays an important role in aphid-induced defence responses and H2O2 accumulation in wheat. These results provide valuable insight into the dynamic transcriptomic responses of wheat leaves to phytotoxic aphid feeding and the molecular mechanisms of aphid-plant interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infestation of the phytotoxic aphid Schizaphis graminum can rapidly induce leaf chlorosis in susceptible plants, but this effect is not observed with the nonphytotoxic aphid Sitobion avenae. However, few studies have attempted to identify the different defence responses induced in wheat by S. graminum and S. avenae feeding and the mechanisms underlying the activation of chlorosis by S. graminum feeding. RESULTS:S. graminum feeding significantly reduced the chlorophyll content of wheat leaves, and these effects were not observed with S. avenae. A transcriptomic analysis showed that the expression levels of genes involved in the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signalling defence pathways were significantly upregulated by both S. avenae and S. graminum feeding; however, more plant defence genes were activated by S. graminum feeding than S. avenae feeding. The transcript levels of genes encoding cell wall-modifying proteins were significantly increased after S. graminum feeding, but only a few of these genes were induced by S. avenae. Furthermore, various reactive oxygen species-scavenging genes, such as 66 peroxidase (POD) and 8 ascorbate peroxidase (APx) genes, were significantly upregulated after S. graminum feeding, whereas only 15 POD and one APx genes were induced by S. avenae feeding. The activity of four antioxidant enzymes was also significantly upregulated by S. graminum feeding. Cytological examination showed that S. graminum feeding induced substantial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in wheat leaves. The chlorosis symptoms and the loss of chlorophyll observed in wheat leaves after S. graminum feeding were reduced and inhibited by the scavenging of H2O2 by dimethylthiourea, which indicated that H2O2 plays important role in the induction of chlorosis by S. graminum feeding. CONCLUSIONS:S. graminum and S. avenae feeding induces the JA, SA and ET signalling pathways, but S. graminum activated stronger plant defence responses than S. avenae. S. graminum feeding triggers strong ROS-scavenging activity and massive H2O2 production in wheat leaves, and the accumulation of H2O2 induced by S. graminum feeding is involved in the activation of chlorosis in wheat leaves. These results enhance our understanding of mechanisms underlying aphid-wheat interactions and provide clues for the development of aphid-resistant wheat varieties.
Project description:The fecundity advantage hypothesis suggests that females with a large body size produce more offspring than smaller females. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the correlations between life-history traits of three aphid species feeding on ten wheat accessions at three levels of analysis with respect to the host plant: overall, inter-accession, and intra-accession. We found that fecundity was significantly correlated with mean relative growth rate (MRGR), weight gain, and development time, and that the faster aphid develops the greater body and fecundity, depending on aphid species, wheat accession, and analyses level. Larger aphids of all three species produced more offspring overall; this held true for Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum at the inter-accession level, and for S. avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and S. graminum for three, five, and eight accessions respectively at the intra-accession level. Only one correlation, between intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) and MRGR, was significant for all aphid species at all three analysis levels. A more accurate statement of the fecundity advantage hypothesis is that cereal aphids with greater MRGR generally maintain higher rm on wheat. Our results also provide a method for exploring relationships between individual life-history traits and population dynamics for insects on host plants.
Project description:Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important crop for biofuel production but it also serves as host for greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum Rondani; GB). Although transcriptomic studies have been done to infer the molecular mechanisms of plant defense against GB, little is known about the effect of GB infestation on the switchgrass protein expression and phosphorylation regulation. The global response of the switchgrass cultivar Summer proteome and phosphoproteome was monitored by label-free proteomics shotgun in GB-infested and uninfested control plants at 10 days post infestation. Peptides matching a total of 3,594 proteins were identified and 429 were differentially expressed proteins in GB-infested plants relative to uninfested control plants. Among these, 291 and 138 were up and downregulated by GB infestation, respectively. Phosphoproteome analysis identified 310 differentially phosphorylated proteins (DP) from 350 phosphopeptides with a total of 399 phosphorylated sites. These phosphopeptides had more serine phosphorylated residues (79%), compared to threonine phosphorylated sites (21%). Overall, KEGG pathway analysis revealed that GB feeding led to the enriched accumulation of proteins important for biosynthesis of plant defense secondary metabolites and repressed the accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Interestingly, defense modulators such as terpene synthase, papain-like cysteine protease, serine carboxypeptidase, and lipoxygenase2 were upregulated at the proteome level, corroborating previously published transcriptomic data.