Project description:Count Me In - The Angiosarcoma Project: A Patient-Driven Research Initiative to Accelerate Research in a Rare Sarcoma. The Angiosarcoma Project (ASCproject; ASCproject.org/) is a research study that directly engages angiosarcoma patients online and empowers them to accelerate cancer research by sharing medical information and clinical samples. Angiosarcoma is an exceedingly rare soft tissue sarcoma with an incidence of ~300 newly diagnosed cases per year in the United States. This low incidence has impeded large-scale research efforts in this disease that are strongly needed to catalyze research and improve clinical outcomes. The Angiosarcoma Project, launched in March 2017, has demonstrated the feasibility of directly engaging geographically dispersed patients to democratize research and establish a large patient cohort to characterize the genomic and clinical landscape of a rare disease. Angiosarcoma patients living in the US or Canada can access the... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:BACKGROUND:Angiosarcoma is an aggressive tumor. Recent case series describe exceptional responses to checkpoint blockade in this disease. METHODS:Herein, we explored the genomic correlates of 48 angiosarcomas from the Angiosarcoma Project (12,499 variants analyzed in 6603 genes; whole-exome sequencing) versus 10,106 pan-cancer tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas including 235 sarcomas but no angiosarcoma. RESULTS:At the molecular level, angiosarcomas were heterogeneous. Those located in the face and scalp presented high tumor mutation burden, missense amino acid variations biased towards more hydrophobic (and therefore more immunogenic) peptides, and ultra-violet mutational signature. CONCLUSIONS:Angiosarcoma molecular features are similar to those observed in melanoma and other skin tumors and may explain comparable immunotherapy sensitivity of these tumor types.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is a highly aggressive cancer of blood vessel-forming cells with few effective treatment options and high patient mortality. It is both rare and heterogenous, making large, well-powered genomic studies nearly impossible. Dogs commonly suffer from a similar cancer, called hemangiosarcoma, with breeds like the golden retriever carrying heritable genetic factors that put them at high risk. If the clinical similarity of canine hemangiosarcoma and human angiosarcoma reflects shared genomic etiology, dogs could be a critically needed model for advancing angiosarcoma research. We assessed the genomic landscape of canine hemangiosarcoma via whole-exome sequencing (47 golden retriever hemangiosarcomas) and RNA sequencing (74 hemangiosarcomas from multiple breeds). Somatic coding mutations occurred most frequently in the tumor suppressor <i>TP53</i> (59.6% of cases) as well as two genes in the PI3K pathway: the oncogene <i>PIK3CA</i> (29.8%) and its regulatory subunit <i>PIK3R1</i> (8.5%). The predominant mutational signature was the age-associated deamination of cytosine to thymine. As reported in human angiosarcoma, <i>CDKN2A/B</i> was recurrently deleted and <i>VEGFA, KDR</i>, and <i>KIT</i> recurrently gained. We compared the canine data to human data recently released by The Angiosarcoma Project, and found many of the same genes and pathways significantly enriched for somatic mutations, particularly in breast and visceral angiosarcomas. Canine hemangiosarcoma closely models the genomic landscape of human angiosarcoma of the breast and viscera, and is a powerful tool for investigating the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. IMPLICATIONS: We characterize the genomic landscape of canine hemangiosarcoma and demonstrate its similarity to human angiosarcoma.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of endothelial cells that carries a high mortality rate. Cytotoxic chemotherapy can elicit clinical responses, but the duration of response is limited. Sequencing reveals multiple mutations in angiogenesis pathways in angiosarcomas, particularly in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We aimed to determine the biological relevance of these pathways in angiosarcoma. Tissue microarray consisting of clinical formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue archival samples were stained for phospho- extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) with immunohistochemistry. Angiosarcoma cell lines were treated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib, pan-VEGFR inhibitor cediranib, or combined trametinib and cediranib and viability was assessed. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) was performed to assess multiple oncogenic protein pathways. SVR angiosarcoma cells were grown in vivo and gene expression effects of treatment were assessed with whole exome RNA sequencing. MAPK signaling was found active in over half of clinical angiosarcoma samples. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with the MEK inhibitor trametinib decreased the viability of angiosarcoma cells. Combined inhibition of the VEGF and MAPK pathways with cediranib and trametinib had an additive effect in in vitro models, and a combinatorial effect in an in vivo model. Combined treatment led to smaller tumors than treatment with either agent alone. RNA-seq demonstrated distinct expression signatures between the trametinib treated tumors and those treated with both trametinib and cediranib. These results indicate a clinical study of combined VEGFR and MEK inhibition in angiosarcoma is warranted.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy that arises spontaneously or secondarily to ionizing radiation or chronic lymphoedema. Previous work has identified aberrant angiogenesis, including occasional somatic mutations in angiogenesis signaling genes, as a key driver of angiosarcoma. Here we employed whole-genome, whole-exome and targeted sequencing to study the somatic changes underpinning primary and secondary angiosarcoma. We identified recurrent mutations in two genes, PTPRB and PLCG1, which are intimately linked to angiogenesis. The endothelial phosphatase PTPRB, a negative regulator of vascular growth factor tyrosine kinases, harbored predominantly truncating mutations in 10 of 39 tumors (26%). PLCG1, a signal transducer of tyrosine kinases, encoded a recurrent, likely activating p.Arg707Gln missense variant in 3 of 34 cases (9%). Overall, 15 of 39 tumors (38%) harbored at least one driver mutation in angiogenesis signaling genes. Our findings inform and reinforce current therapeutic efforts to target angiogenesis signaling in angiosarcoma.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is a rare and generally fatal tumor composed of aberrant cells of endothelial origin. Because of its infrequency in humans, very little is known about the growth requirements of this vascular sarcoma. Unlike the rapidly proliferating solid tumors from which they are isolated from, many of the established angiosarcoma cell lines exhibit less than robust growth in culture and often fail to form tumors in xenograft models. In order to better understand angiosarcoma in vitro growth conditions, we focused on a singular aspect of their culture-adhesion to the extracellular matrix-in order to identify attachment substrates that may facilitate and/or enhance their growth in tissue culture. Our data indicates that the extracellular matrix of angiosarcomas contains similar protein compositions to that of non-diseased endothelial cells. Moreover, angiosarcoma cell lines exhibited strong attachment preference to substrates such as collagen I or fibronectin, and less preference to collagen IV, laminin, or tropoelastin. Growth on preferred extracellular matrix substrates promoted mitogenic signaling and increased proliferation of angiosarcoma cell lines. These findings provide insight that may lead to more successful in vitro growth of angiosarcoma cell lines.
Project description:Introduction Angiosarcoma of the head and neck is a rare vascular sarcoma associated with high rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis and a poor prognosis. Objective We describe our experience treating patients with angiosarcoma of the head and neck to evaluate the outcomes, patterns of failure, and current treatments. Methods We identified six patients with angiosarcoma of the head and neck and treated at our institution between 2000 and 2013. We compared our results to the literature from 1979 to 2013. Results Mean follow-up was 42 months. Local recurrence rate was 50% with disease-specific survival and 2-year disease-free survival rates of 33.3 and 20%, respectively. Prognostic factors included tumor size > 5 cm and surgical margin status, with no correlation between histologic grade and survival. Combined-modality therapy was only used for aggressive tumors with positive surgical margins but is suggested to improve local control and overall survival. Conclusions Our data series supports that angiosarcoma of the head and neck has a high rate of recurrence and is associated with a poor prognosis, despite current combined-modality therapy. The study highlights the importance of attaining negative margins during surgical resection, the utility of adjuvant therapies, as well as the need for continued research in developing new management strategies.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is an extremely rare and aggressive malignancy. Standard of care of localized tumors includes surgery ± radiation. Despite this multimodal treatment, >50% of the angiosarcoma patients develop local or distant recurrent disease. The role of neoadjuvant systemic therapy is still controversial and we therefore performed a systematic review of the literature to define the role of neoadjuvant systemic therapy based on available evidence. We focused on the effects of neoadjuvant systemic therapy on: 1. The success of surgical resection and 2. the long-term survival. All articles published before October 2019 on Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Cochrane library and Scopus were evaluated. Eighteen case reports and six retrospective cohort studies were included. There were no randomized controlled trials. This literature showed a beneficial role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on downsizing of the tumor resulting in an improvement of the resection margins, especially in patients with cardiac or cutaneous angiosarcoma. However, no definitive conclusions on survival can be drawn based on the available literature lacking any prospective randomized studies in this setting. We advise that neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered, since this could lead to less mutilating resections and a higher rate of free resection margins. An international angiosarcoma registry could help to develop guidelines for this rare disease.