Project description:Gymnema sylvestre is a plant included in Apocynaceae family and is located in many regions of Asia, Africa and Australia. This plant is widely used as a traditional therapy for different purposes. Even now it is being used as a dietary supplement due to its numerous therapeutic uses. It is known to have blood glucose lowering potential and, thus, is widely used in traditional and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. It renders glucose lowering activity due to the presence of phytochemicals, such as gurmarin, gymnemic acid as well as gymnemasaponins. Gymnema sylvestre is also known to have anti-oxidant, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, gastro and hepatoprotective, anticancer and lipid-lowering activities. This review discusses in details on different pharmacological and clinical potentials of Gymnema sylvestre and its chemical constituents associated with its therapeutic potentials.
Project description:Four new pregnane glycosides 1-4 were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem of Gymnema sylvestre and named gymsylvestrosides A-D. Hydrolysis of compound 1 under the catalysis of Aspergilus niger ?-glucosidase afforded compound 5 (gymsylvestroside E). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods such as HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, as well as HMQC-TOCSY experiment. Compounds 1-4 were screened for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
Project description:Gymnema sylvestre, a medicinal plant, has been used in Indian ayurvedic traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Phytochemical investigation of Gymnema sylvestre led to the isolation of five new pregnane glycosides, gymsylosides A-E (1-5) and four known oleanane saponins, 3?-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl (1?6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6), gymnemoside-W1 (7), 3?-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D- glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (8), and alternoside XIX (9). Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic evidence and comparison with those reported in the literature. All compounds were evaluated for their ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Compounds 2-4 showed significant ?-amylase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 113.0 to 176.2 µM.
Project description:Gymnema sylvestre is a highly valuable medicinal plant in traditional Indian system of medicine and used in many polyherbal formulations especially in treating diabetes. However, the lack of genomic resources has impeded its research at molecular level. The present study investigated functional gene profile of G. sylvestre via RNA sequencing technology. The de novo assembly of 88.9 million high quality reads yielded 23,126 unigenes, of which 18116 were annotated against databases such as NCBI nr database, gene ontology (GO), KEGG, Pfam, CDD, PlantTFcat, UniProt & GreeNC. Total 808 unigenes mapped to 78 different Transcription Factor families, whereas 39 unigenes assigned to CYP450 and 111 unigenes coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids including transcripts for synthesis of important compounds like Vitamin E, beta-amyrin and squalene. Among them, presence of six important enzyme coding transcripts were validated using qRT-PCR, which showed high expression of enzymes involved in methyl-erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. This study also revealed 1428 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), which may aid in molecular breeding studies. Besides this, 8 putative long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were predicted from un-annotated sequences, which may hold key role in regulation of essential biological processes in G. sylvestre. The study provides an opportunity for future functional genomic studies and to uncover functions of the lncRNAs in G. sylvestre.
Project description:Gymnema sylvestre is an important medicinal plant containing antidiabetic activity. Through de novo transcriptomic study, the pathways of polyoxypregnane glycosides were explored and candidate genes of these pathways were identified in G. sylvestre. High-quality raw reads were assembled into transcripts which resulted in 193,615 unigenes. These unigenes further decoded 58,274 coding DNA sequences (CDSs). Functional annotation of predicted CDSs was carried out using the protein databases, i.e., NCBI's non-redundant, Uniprot and Pfam. Eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) classification and transcription factor analysis has revealed most CDS-enriched categories as "Signal transduction mechanism" and "Basic Helix loop helix" (bHLH) transcription factor family, respectively. A total of 16,569 CDSs were assigned minimum one Gene Ontology (GO) term. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis disclosed 235 CDSs which represented total 27 genes of pregnane glycoside pathways and 19 CDSs represented 10 important enzymes of polyoxypregnane glycoside biosynthesis, i.e., sterol 24-C-methyltransferase, cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase, ?14-sterol reductase, C-8,7 sterol isomerase, sterol methyltransferase 2, C-5 sterol desaturase, sterol ?7 reductase, ?24 sterol reductase, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and progesterone 5? reductase (5?POR). This transcriptome analysis provided an important resource for future functional genomic studies in G. sylvestre.
Project description:Endophytic fungi produce various types of chemicals for establishment of niche within the host plant. Due to symbiotic association, they secrete pharmaceutically important bioactive compounds and enzyme inhibitors. In this research article, we have explored the potent ?-glucosidse inhibitor (AGI) produced from Fusarium equiseti recovered from the leaf of Gymnema sylvestre through bioassay-guided fraction. This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, antioxidant activity and ?-glucosidse inhibition of endophytic fungi isolated from Gymnema sylvestre. A total of 32 isolates obtained were grouped into 16 genera, according to their morphology of colony and spores. A high biodiversity of endophytic fungi were observed in G. sylvestre with diversity indices. Endophytic fungal strain Fusarium equiseti was identified through DNA sequencing and the sequence was deposited in GenBank database (https://ncbi.nim.nih.gov) with acession number: MF403109. The characterization of potent compound was done by FTIR, LC-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis with IUPAC name 17-(5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] phenanthren-3-ol. The isolated bioactive compound showed significant ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition activity with IC50 values, 4.22?±?0.0005?µg/mL and 69.72?±?0.001?µg/mL while IC50 values of acarbose was 5.75?±?0.007 and 55.29?±?0.0005?µg/mL respectively. This result is higher in comparison to other previous study. The enzyme kinetics study revealed that bioactive compound was competitive inhibitor for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. In-silico study showed that bioactive compound binds to the binding site of ?-amylase, similar to that of acarbose but with higher affinity. The study highlights the importance of endophytic fungi as an alternative source of AGI (?-glucosidase inhibition) to control the diabetic condition in vitro.
Project description:Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as "gurmar" for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents.