Project description:When compared to modern lean-type breeds, Portuguese local Alentejano (AL) and Bísaro (BI) pig breeds present a high potential for subcutaneous and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition which contributes for better meat quality. The aim of this work was to explore the genome function to better understand the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with body fat accretion. Dorsal subcutaneous fat samples were collected at slaughter from adult animals (n = 4 for each breed) with ~150 kg body weight. Total RNA was obtained and sequenced for transcriptome analysis using DESeq2. A total of 458 differentially expressed (DE) genes (q-value < 0.05) were identified, with 263 overexpressed in AL and 195 in BI. Key genes involved in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation were upregulated in AL such as ACLY, FASN, ME1, ELOVL6 and SCD. A functional enrichment analysis of the DE genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Cholesterol synthesis is suggested to be higher in AL via SREBF2, SCAP and PPARG, while lipolytic activity may be more active in BI through GH and AMPK signalling. Increased signalling of CD40 together with the predicted activation of INSIG1 and INSIG2 in BI suggests that this breed is more sensitive to insulin whereas the AL is less sensitive like the Iberian breed.
Project description:The aim of this work was to explore the genome function of AL and BI pig breeds to better understand the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with body fat accretion and lean muscle tissue deposition and therefore, meat quality of these breeds. Dorsal subcutaneous fat samples were collected at slaughter from adult AL and BI pigs (n=4 for each genotype) with ~150kg body weight. Total RNA was obtained and sequenced for transcriptome analysis and a bioinformatic analysis using the DESeq2 R package was implemented. A total of 458 differentially expressed genes (q-value<0.05) were identified, with 263 found overexpressed in AL and 195 in BI, including 47 novel genes. Several key genes involved in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation were consistently found upregulated in AL such as acly, fasn, me1, elovl6 and scd. A functional enrichment analysis of the candidate genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, which revealed GH signalling, HOTAIR regulatory pathway, AMPK and IGF-1 signalling among the top canonical pathways associated to the BI. Potential upstream regulators such as SCAP, MED1, SREBF2 and PPARG were found activated in AL, suggesting increased adipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis. Regulators found in the BI included INSIG1, INSIG2 and FOXO1 associated with lipogenesis inhibition, and MEF2C and PDGFB, related to myogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Overall design: Comparation of the transcriptomic data in adipose tissue of the two main Portuguese pig breeds
Project description:Modern pig breeds, which have been genetically improved to achieve fast growth and a lean meat deposition, differ from local pig breeds with respect to fat deposition, fat specific metabolic characteristics and various other properties. The present review aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences between fatty local and modern lean pig breeds in adipose tissue deposition and lipid metabolism, taking into consideration morphological, cellular, biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic perspectives. Compared to modern breeds, local pig breeds accumulate larger amounts of fat, which generally contains more monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids; they exhibit a higher adipocyte size and higher activity of lipogenic enzymes. Studies using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches highlighted several processes like immune response, fatty-acid turn-over, oxidoreductase activity, mitochondrial function, etc. which differ between local and modern pig breeds.
Project description:The aim of this work was to analyse the distribution of causal and candidate mutations associated to relevant productive traits in twenty local European pig breeds. Also, the potential of the SNP panel employed for elucidating the genetic structure and relationships among breeds was evaluated. Most relevant genes and mutations associated with pig morphological, productive, meat quality, reproductive and disease resistance traits were prioritized and analyzed in a maximum of 47 blood samples from each of the breeds (Alentejana, Apulo-Calabrese, Basque, Bísara, Majorcan Black, Black Slavonian (Crna slavonska), Casertana, Cinta Senese, Gascon, Iberian, Krškopolje (Krškopoljski), Lithuanian indigenous wattle, Lithuanian White Old Type, Mora Romagnola, Moravka, Nero Siciliano, Sarda, Schwäbisch-Hällisches Schwein (Swabian Hall pig), Swallow-Bellied Mangalitsa and Turopolje). We successfully analyzed allelic variation in 39 polymorphisms, located in 33 candidate genes. Results provide relevant information regarding genetic diversity and segregation of SNPs associated to production and quality traits. Coat color and morphological trait-genes that show low level of segregation, and fixed SNPs may be useful for traceability. On the other hand, we detected SNPs which may be useful for association studies as well as breeding programs. For instance, we observed predominance of alleles that might be unfavorable for disease resistance and boar taint in most breeds and segregation of many alleles involved in meat quality, fatness and growth traits. Overall, these findings provide a detailed catalogue of segregating candidate SNPs in 20 European local pig breeds that may be useful for traceability purposes, for association studies and for breeding schemes. Population genetic analyses based on these candidate genes are able to uncover some clues regarding the hidden genetic substructure of these populations, as the extreme genetic closeness between Iberian and Alentejana breeds and an uneven admixture of the breeds studied. The results are in agreement with available knowledge regarding breed history and management, although largest panels of neutral markers should be employed to get a deeper understanding of the population's structure and relationships.
Project description:This work investigated the contribution of cross-breeding between two local Portuguese pig breeds to the conservation of animal biodiversity and income of local pig producers. Quality traits of semimembranosus (SM), gluteus medius (GM) and dorsal subcutaneous fat (DSF) were studied in Alentejano (AL), Bísaro (BI), AL × BI, and BI × AL (Ribatejano-RI) castrated male pigs. Pigs were reared outdoors, fed ad libitum, and slaughtered at ~65 (trial 1) and 150 kg BW (trial 2). In trial 1, AL pigs showed higher SM intramuscular fat, lower total collagen, and higher soluble collagen than BI pigs, while AL × BI and BI × AL pigs showed intermediate (NS) values. AL, AL × BI, and BI × AL pigs showed higher SM myoglobin content, and AL a more intense red colour than BI pigs. Finally, AL, AL × BI, and BI × AL showed higher total lipids in DSF than BI pigs. In trial 2, SM and DSF results were similar to those obtained in trial 1. In GM, AL and BI × AL showed higher intramuscular fat than BI and AL × BI pigs, while AL, AL × BI and BI × AL showed lower total collagen content than BI pigs. In conclusion, these results suggest that RI crosses are a productive alternative, with overall muscle and DSF traits statistically not different between AL × BI and BI × AL, and similar to those observed in AL pigs.
Project description:The majority of the nearly 400 existing local pig breeds are adapted to specific environments and human needs. The demand for large production quantities and the industrialized pig production have caused a rapid decline of many local pig breeds in recent decades. Black Slavonian pig and Turopolje pig, the latter highly threatened, are the two Croatian local indigenous breeds typically grown in extensive or semi-intensive systems. In order to guide a long-term breeding program to prevent the disappearance of these breeds, we analyzed their genetic diversity, inbreeding level and relationship with other local breeds across the world, as well as modern breeds and several wild populations, using high throughput genomic data obtained using the Illumina Infinium PorcineSNP60 v2 BeadChip. Multidimensional scaling analysis positioned Black Slavonian pigs close to the UK/North American breeds, while the Turopolje pig clustered within the Mediterranean breeds. Turopolje pig showed a very high inbreeding level (FROH > 4 Mb = 0.400 and FROH > 8 Mb = 0.332) that considerably exceeded the level of full-sib mating, while Black Slavonian pig showed much lower inbreeding (FROH > 4 Mb = 0.098 and FROH > 8 Mb = 0.074), indicating a planned mating strategy. In Croatian local breeds we identified several genome regions showing adaptive selection signals that were not present in commercial breeds. The results obtained in this study reflect the current genetic status and breeding management of the two Croatian indigenous local breeds. Given the small populations of both breeds, a controlled management activity has been implemented in Black Slavonian pigs since their commercial value has been recognized. In contrast, the extremely high inbreeding level observed in Turopolje pig argues for an urgent conservation plan with a long-term, diversity-oriented breeding program.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of pig adipose tissue comparing two divergent breeds: Large white (LW, conventional) and Basque (B, local, indigeneous). Four-condition experiment, LW vs. B muscles at 35 kg and 145 kg live weight. Biological replicates: at 145 kg, 10 B and 10 LW; at 35 kg 5 B and 5 LW. One replicate per array.
Project description:Shandong indigenous pig breeds are an invaluable source of data on genetics in Chinese pigs. However, information on the genetic basis of these breeds remains limited. In this study, we used specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing to conduct whole-genome screening to investigate genetic diversity in Shandong indigenous breeds and Western pig breeds. The results showed that Duroc pigs (DD) had clear genetic relationships with Dapulian pigs (DPL; Fst = 0.4386) and Laiwu pigs (LW; Fst = 0.5134), and DPL and LW were relatively close genetically (Fst = 0.2334). In general, Shandong indigenous breeds showed greater genetic variety than the Western breeds. Both neighbor-joining trees and principal components analyses were able to differentiate the breeds, but population structure analyses indicated that the Western breeds genetically influenced the Shandong indigenous breeds to some extent. A total of 162 differentially selected regions (DSRs) with 841 genes and 157 DSRs with 707 genes were identified in DPL and LW, respectively. Gene annotation of the selected regions identified a series of genes regulating immunity and fat deposition. Our data confirm the rationality and accuracy of the current classification of pig breeds in Shandong province. Our results point to candidate genes in Shandong indigenous pig breeds and further promote the importance of follow-up research on functional verification.
Project description:We performed transcriptome analysis of the longissimus dorsi muscle of four pig breeds (L, LDPL, DPL, DLDPL). This study provides a reference for exploring transcriptome regulation mechanisms affecting muscle growth and development in different pig breeds. Overall design: Examination of transcriptional variation among four different pig breeds.
Project description:Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are commonly used as molecular markers in research on genetic diversity and discrimination among taxa or breeds because polymorphisms in these regions contribute to gene function and phenotypically important traits. In this study, we investigated genome-wide characteristics, repeat units, and polymorphisms of SSRs using sequencing data from SSR-enriched libraries created from Wuzhishan (WZS), Bama (BM), inbred Luchuan (LC) and Zangxiang (ZX) miniature pig breeds. The numbers and types of SSRs, distributions of repeat units and polymorphic SSRs varied among the four breeds. Compared to the Duroc pig reference genome, 2518 polymorphic SSRs were unique and common to all four breeds and functional annotation revealed that they may affect the coding and regulatory regions of genes. Several examples, such as FGF23, MYF6, IGF1R, and LEPROT, are associated with growth and development in pigs. Three of the polymorphic SSRs were selected to confirm the polymorphism and the corresponding alleles through fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary electrophoresis. Together, this study provides useful insights into the discovery, characteristics and distribution of SSRs in four pig breeds. The polymorphic SSRs, especially those common and unique to all four pig breeds, might affect associated genes and play important roles in growth and development.