Project description:Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) is an important species complex of soil-borne pathogenic fungi that cause vascular wilt diseases of agricultural crops and some opportunistic diseases of humans. The fungicide phenamacril has been extensively reported to have antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium fujikuroi. In this study, we found that the amino acid substitutions (V151A and S418T) in Type I myosin FoMyo5 cause natural low resistance to phenamacril in the plant pathogenic Fo isolates. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of two phenamacril-resistant Fo isolates FoII5, Fo1st and one phenamacril-sensitive isolate Fo3_a after 1 μg/mL phenamacril treatment. Among the 2728 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 14 DEGs involved in oxidation-reduction processes and MFS transporters, were significantly up-regulated in phenamacril-resistant isolates. On the other hand, 14 DEGs involved in ATP-dependent RNA helicase and ribosomal biogenesis related proteins, showed significantly down-regulated expression in both phenamacril-resistant and -sensitive isolates. These results indicated that phenamacril not only seriously affected the cytoskeletal protein binding and ATPase activity of sensitive isolate, but also suppressed ribosome biogenesis in all the isolates. Hence, this study helps us better understand resistance regulation mechanism and fungicidal activity of phenamacril and provide reference for the development of new fungicides to control Fo.
Project description:Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Development and application of DNA-based methods to distinguish highly virulent isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae [Fo koae; cause of koa wilt disease on Acacia koa (koa)] will help disease management through early detection, enhanced monitoring, and improved disease resistance-breeding programs. RESULTS:This study presents whole genome analyses of one highly virulent Fo koae isolate and one non-pathogenic F. oxysporum (Fo) isolate. These analyses allowed for the identification of putative lineage-specific DNA and predicted genes necessary for disease development on koa. Using putative chromosomes and predicted gene comparisons, Fo koae-exclusive, virulence genes were identified. The putative lineage-specific DNA included identified genes encoding products secreted in xylem (e. g., SIX1 and SIX6) that may be necessary for disease development on koa. Unique genes from Fo koae were used to develop pathogen-specific PCR primers. These diagnostic primers allowed target amplification in the characterized highly virulent Fo koae isolates but did not allow product amplification in low-virulence or non-pathogenic isolates of Fo. Thus, primers developed in this study will be useful for early detection and monitoring of highly virulent strains of Fo koae. Isolate verification is also important for disease resistance-breeding programs that require a diverse set of highly virulent Fo koae isolates for their disease-screening assays to develop disease-resistant koa. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide the framework for understanding the pathogen genes necessary for koa wilt disease and the genetic variation of Fo koae populations across the Hawaiian Islands.
Project description:Fifty fungal isolates were sampled from diseased tomato plants as result of a survey conducted in seven tomato crop areas in Algeria from 2012 to 2015. Morphological criteria and PCR-based identification, using the primers PF02 and PF03, assigned 29 out of 50 isolates to Fusarium oxysporum (Fo). The banding patterns amplified for genes SIX1, SIX3 and SIX4 served to identify races 2 and 3 of Fo f. sp. lycopersici (FOL), and Fo f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) among the Algerian isolates. All FOL isolates showed pathogenicity on the susceptible tomato cv. "Super Marmande," while nine of out 10 Algerian FORL isolates were pathogenic on tomato cv. "Rio Grande." Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprints showed high genetic diversity among Algerian Fo isolates. Seventeen Algerian Trichoderma isolates were also obtained and assigned to the species T. asperellum (12 isolates), T. harzianum (four isolates) and T. ghanense (one isolate) based on ITS and tef1? gene sequences. Different in vitro tests identified the antagonistic potential of native Trichoderma isolates against FORL and FOL. Greenhouse biocontrol assays performed on "SM" tomato plants with T. ghanense T8 and T. asperellum T9 and T17, and three Fo isolates showed that isolate T8 performed well against FORL and FOL. This finding was based on an incidence reduction of crown and root rot and Fusarium wilt diseases by 53.1 and 48.3%, respectively.
Project description:Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is an increasingly important disease of tomato. This paper reports the high-quality draft genome assembly of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate D11 (race 3), which consists of 39 scaffolds with 57,281,978?bp (GC content, 47.5%), an N 50 of 4,408,267?bp, a mean read coverage of 99.8×, and 17,682 predicted genes.
Project description:Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1?), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) is one of the most widespread and destructive melon diseases worldwide. Whole-genome sequencing data of a diverse set of Fom strains, as well as several non-pathogenic strains isolated from melon from different parts of the world are described here. These data shed light on the genetic diversity, population structure and the potential evolutionary trajectories which have led to the emergence of different Fom races, and will facilitate identification of avirulence genes which will be helpful to develop resistant melon cultivars.<h4>Data description</h4>Genomic DNA was extracted from mycelium of 38 Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) strains collected from different parts of the world including Belgium, China, France, Iran, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States. The genomes were sequenced to ≈ 20 × coverage using the Illumina Hiseq Xten system, resulting in paired-end reads of 151 bp and assemblies of 1675 (Fom-18L) to 4472 (Fom-R12-13) scaffolds. The genome sequences are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under Project number PRJNA596396 and PRJNA596396, respectively. The presented data set can be useful to identify the genes associated with pathogenic strategies.
Project description:Many studies have shown that several Greek ecosystems inhabit very interesting bacteria with biotechnological properties. Therefore Streptomyces isolates from diverse Greek habitats were selected for their antifungal activity against the common phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate encoded ACTA1551, member of Streptomyces genus, could strongly suppress the fungal growth when examined in antagonistic bioassays in vitro. The isolate was found phylogenetically relative to Streptomyces rochei after analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as medium composition, temperature, and pH on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 was able to protect tomato seeds from F. oxysporum infection in vivo while it was shown to promote the growth of tomato plants when the pathogen was absent. In an initial effort towards the elucidation of the biochemical and physiological nature of ACTA1551 antifungal activity, extracts from solid streptomycete cultures under antagonistic or/and not antagonistic conditions were concentrated and fractionated. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of the isolate showed to be more than one and produced independently of the presence of the pathogen. The above observations could support the application of Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 as biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum.