Project description:<b>Background: </b>Commercially available Illumina DNA methylation arrays (HumanMethylation 27K, HumanMethylation450, and MethylationEPIC BeadChip) can be used for comprehensive DNA methylation analyses of not only the human genome but also other mammalian genomes, ranging from those of nonhuman primates to those of rodents. However, practical application of the EPIC array to the crab-eating macaque has not been reported.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Through bioinformatic analyses involving cross-species comparison and consideration of probe performance, we selected array probes that can be reliably used for the crab-eating macaque genome. A DNA methylation assay using an EPIC array was performed on genomic DNA extracted from the brains of five crab-eating macaques. The obtained DNA methylation data were compared with a publicly available dataset.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Among the 865 918 probes in the EPIC array, a total of 183 509 probes (21.2%) were selected as high-confidence array probes in the crab-eating macaque. Subsequent comparisons revealed that the data from these probes showed good concordance with other DNA methylation datasets of the crab-eating macaque.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The selected high-confidence array probes would be useful for high-throughput DNA methylation assays of the crab-eating macaque.
Project description:BACKGROUND: As a human replacement, the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an invaluable non-human primate model for biomedical research, but the lack of genetic information on this primate has represented a significant obstacle for its broader use. RESULTS: Here, we sequenced the transcriptome of 16 tissues originated from two individuals of crab-eating macaque (male and female), and identified genes to resolve the main obstacles for understanding the biological response of the crab-eating macaque. From 4 million reads with 1.4 billion base sequences, 31,786 isotigs containing genes similar to those of humans, 12,672 novel isotigs, and 348,160 singletons were identified using the GS FLX sequencing method. Approximately 86% of human genes were represented among the genes sequenced in this study. Additionally, 175 tissue-specific transcripts were identified, 81 of which were experimentally validated. In total, 4,314 alternative splicing (AS) events were identified and analyzed. Intriguingly, 10.4% of AS events were associated with transposable element (TE) insertions. Finally, investigation of TE exonization events and evolutionary analysis were conducted, revealing interesting phenomena of human-specific amplified trends in TE exonization events. CONCLUSIONS: This report represents the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing and genetic analyses of M. fascicularis and could contribute to its utility for biomedical research and basic biology.
Project description:Deep sequencing of mRNA from two macaques, crab-eating macaque and Indian rhesus macaque Analysis of ploy(A)+ RNA of different specimens:brain,ileum,kidney,liver,testes and white adipose for crab-eating macaque while brain,heart,,kidney,liver,quadriceps and testes for Indian rhesus macaque
Project description:We provide RNA-Seq data for cerebral cortex, liver and kidney cortex from two untreated female crab-eating macaques. Overall design: Three tissues from two animals, without treatment
Project description:Mice and humans express two active chitinases: acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Both chitinases are thought to play important roles in specific pathophysiological conditions. The crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is one of the most frequently used nonhuman primate models in basic and applied biomedical research. Here, we performed gene expression analysis of two chitinases in normal crab-eating monkey tissues by way of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using a single standard DNA molecule. Levels of AMCase and CHIT1 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were highest in the stomach and the lung, respectively, when compared to other tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis of mouse, monkey, and human using monkey?mouse?human hybrid standard DNA showed that the AMCase mRNA levels were exceptionally high in mouse and monkey stomachs while very low in the human stomach. As for the CHIT1 mRNA, we detected higher levels in the monkey lung when compared with those of mouse and human. The differences of mRNA expression between the species in the stomach tissues were basically reflecting the levels of the chitinolytic activities. These results indicate that gene expression of AMCase and CHIT1 differs between mammalian species and requiring special attention in handling data in chitinase-related studies in particular organisms.
Project description:Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed, cynomolgus, or crab-eating macaque) is a highly advantageous model in which to study human cochlea with regard to both evolutionary proximity and physiological similarity of the auditory system. To better understand the properties of primate cochlear function, we analyzed the genes predominantly expressed in M. fascicularis cochlea. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from Left and right whole cochleas of an adult male Macaca fascicularis. RNA was hybridized on either macaque array chip or human array chip, both of which have been widely used and therefore comparable with other dataset.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-human primates are often infected with human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes, but rarely with Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, 1452 fecal specimens were collected from farmed crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan, China during the period April 2016 to January 2018. These specimens were analyzed for Cryptosporidium species and subtypes by using PCR and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively. RESULTS:Altogether, Cryptosporidium was detected using 18S rRNA-based PCR in 132 (9.1%) sampled animals, with significantly higher prevalence in females (12.5% or 75/599 versus 6.1% or 43/706), younger animals (10.7% or 118/1102 in monkeys 1-3-years-old versus 4.0% or 14/350 in those over 3-years-old) and animals with diarrhea (12.6% or 46/365 versus 7.9% or 86/1087). Four Cryptosporidium species were identified, namely C. hominis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in 86, 30, 15 and 1 animal, respectively. The identified C. parvum, C. hominis and C. ubiquitum were further subtyped by using gp60 PCR. Among them, C. parvum belonged to subtypes in two known subtype families, namely IIoA14G1 (in 18 animals) and IIdA19G1 (in 2 animals). In contrast, C. hominis mostly belonged to two new subtype families Im and In, which are genetically related to Ia and Id, respectively. The C. hominis subtypes identified included ImA18 (in 38 animals), InA14 (in six animals), InA26 (in six animals), InA17 (in one animal) and IiA17 (in three animals). The C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to subtype family XIId. By subtype, ImA18 and IIoA14G1 were detected in animals with diarrhea whereas the remaining ones were mostly found in asymptomatic animals. Compared with C. parvum and C. muris, higher oocyst shedding intensity was observed in animals infected with C. hominis, especially those infected with the Im subtype family. CONCLUSIONS:Data from the study suggest that crab-eating macaques are infected with diverse C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes. The C. parvum IIo subtype family previously seen in rodents in China has apparently expanded its host range.
Project description:A bacterial strain belonging to the genus Atopobacter was isolated from a vaginal swab from a crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, AH10.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Using high-throughput RNA sequencing technology, this study aimed to sequence the transcriptome of kidney and liver tissues harvested from Peninsular Malaysia cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). M. fascicularis are significant nonhuman primate models in the biomedical field, owing to the macaque's biological similarities with humans. The additional transcriptomic dataset will supplement the previously described Peninsular Malaysia M. fascicularis transcriptomes obtained in a past endeavour. RESULTS:A total of 75,350,240 sequence reads were obtained via Hi-seq 2500 sequencing technology. A total of 5473 significant differentially expressed genes were called. Gene ontology functional categorisation showed that cellular process, catalytic activity, and cell part categories had the highest number of expressed genes, while the metabolic pathways category possessed the highest number of expressed genes in the KEGG pathway analysis. The additional sequence dataset will further enrich existing M. fascicularis transcriptome assemblies, and provide a dataset for further downstream studies.