Project description:In humans, type I interferon (IFN) is a family of 17 cytokines, among which the alpha subtypes and the beta subtype are differentially expressed. It has been suggested that IFN-beta activates a specific signaling cascade in addition to those activated by all type I IFNs. Nevertheless, no true biological relevance for a differential activity of alpha and beta IFN subtypes has been identified so far. Because type I IFNs are critical for the regulation of osteoclastogenesis in mice, we have compared the effect of IFN-alpha2 and IFN-beta on the differentiation of human monocytes into osteoclasts. Primary monocytes undergoing osteoclastic differentiation are highly and equally sensitive to both alpha2 and beta IFNs as determined by measuring the induction levels of several IFN-stimulated genes. However, IFN-beta was 100-fold more potent than the alpha2 subtype at inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Expression profiling of the genes differentially regulated by IFN-alpha2 and IFN-beta in this cellular system revealed the chemokine CXCL11 as the only IFN-induced gene differentially up-regulated by IFN-beta. We show that recombinant CXCL11 by itself inhibits osteoclastic differentiation. These results indicate that autocrine-acting CXCL11 mediates, at least in part, the regulations of osteoclastogenesis by type I IFNs.
Project description:Bone metabolism results from a balance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Diseases such as periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by increased bone destruction due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Here we report that interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), a transcription factor expressed in immune cells, is a key regulatory molecule for osteoclastogenesis. IRF-8 expression in osteoclast precursors was downregulated during the initial phase of osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), which is encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene. Mice deficient in Irf8 showed severe osteoporosis, owing to increased numbers of osteoclasts, and also showed enhanced bone destruction after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Irf8-/- osteoclast precursors underwent increased osteoclastogenesis in response to RANKL and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). IRF-8 suppressed osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the function and expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Our results show that IRF-8 inhibits osteoclast formation under physiological and pathological conditions and suggest a model where downregulation of inhibitory factors such as IRF-8 contributes to RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:Background:Bone regenerative heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP2/7) enhances but all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits osteoclastogenesis. However, the effect of ATRA on physiological and/or BMP2/7-induced osteoclastogenesis in still unclear. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of combined treatment of BMP2/7 and ATRA on osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity. Results:All-trans retinoic acid (1 µM)?±?BMP2/7 (5 or 50 ng/ml) was added in murine pre-osteoclasts cell line RAW264.7 or mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) cultures. Osteoclast marker gene expression, osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity were analyzed. BMP2/7 robustly enhanced osteoclast maker gene expression, osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity. Interestingly, ATRA completely inhibited osteoclast formation in presence or absence of BMP2/7. Pan-antagonist of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and antagonist of RAR?, ? or ? failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of ATRA on osteoclastogenesis. ATRA strongly inhibited Rank and Nfatc1 expression. Conclusions:All-trans retinoic acid inhibits BMP2/7-induced osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity possibly via RANKL-RANK pathway. Our findings from previous and current study suggest that combination of ATRA and BMP2/7 could be a novel approach to treat hyperactive osteoclast-induced bone loss such as in inflammation-induced severe osteoporosis and bone loss caused by cancer metastasis to bone.
Project description:FOXO transcription factors especially FOXO1 have profound roles in bone development and remodeling. The regulation of cells of the osteoblast lineage by FOXOs is suggested to be stage-specific or context dependent. Intriguingly, recent studies on the role played by FOXOs in osteoclastogenesis reached different conclusion. Bartell et al. showed that FOXOs restrained osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption partially by upregulation of the H2O2-inactivating enzyme catalase. Wang et al. demonstrated that FOXO1 activated osteoclast formation. In the present study, we confirmed the results of Bartell et al. that FOXO1 expression was reduced upon stimulation of RANKL; FOXO1 inhibition promoted and FOXO1 activation repressed, osteoclast differentiation and activity; the inhibitory effect of FOXO1 on osteoclastogenesis was partially mediated by ROS since treatment with ROS scavengers cancelled the effect of FOXO1 inhibition on osteoclastogenesis. We further investigated the mechanisms responsible for repressed osteoclastogenesis by FOXO1. We found that FOXO1 inhibition modulated MAPKs, NF-?B and AP-1. Finally, we proved that the inhibitory effect of FOXO1 on osteoclast formation was partially mediated by MYC suppression by showing that MYC repression almost totally abrogated the effect of FOXO1 inhibition on osteoclastogenesis. To conclude, our study confirmed FOXO1 as a cell-autonomous inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:The endogenous metabolite itaconate has emerged as a regulator of macrophage function that limits inflammation. However, its effect on cell differentiation and osteoclast-related diseases is unclear. Here, for the first time, we explored the effect of itaconate and its cell-permeable itaconate derivative, 4-octyl itaconate (OI) on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, we demonstrated that itaconate concentration was lower in estrogen-deficient mice. OI released itaconate and induced the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in bone marrow-derived macrophages during osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, OI significantly suppressed the early, middle, and late stages of osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of NF-?B ligand in vitro, as confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Moreover, it significantly inhibited fibrous actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Mechanistically, we observed that OI enhanced Nrf2 expression by suppressing its association with ubiquitin via inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase (Hrd1). OI also inhibited LPS-induced the reactive oxygen species and inflammatory responses via Hrd1. An estrogen deficiency (via ovariectomy)-induced osteoporosis model was also established. Here, on micro-computed tomography and histologic analysis showed that OI effectively suppressed ovariectomy-induced bone loss. In summary, OI, an itaconate derivative, can inhibit osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo, indicating that OI could be a potential drug to treat osteoclast-related diseases; our results also link itaconate to the development of osteoporosis.-Sun, X., Zhang, B., Pan, X., Huang, H., Xie, Z., Ma, Y., Hu, B., Wang, J., Chen, Z., Shi, P. Octyl itaconate inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing Hrd1 and activating Nrf2 signaling.
Project description:Pregnane X receptor (PXR) which belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily plays vital roles in several biological functions, especially in the inflammatory procedure. Besides that, PXR is revealed by recent studies to have essential effects on bone tissue. As an agonist of PXR, meclizine is a piperazine-derived histamine H1 antagonist, and has been frequently used for prevention and treatment of vomiting and nausea. Because osteoclastogenesis is characterized by the activation of inflammation-related signaling pathways, we speculated that meclizine may affect formation and function of osteoclast. In the present study, we explored the effect of meclizine on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. In primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), meclizine reduced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner, while knockdown of PXR with siRNA partially abrogated the osteoclastogenesis inhibition of meclizine. On the one hand, at the molecular level, meclizine attenuated RANKL-induced activation of c-Fos, NFATc1, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), including ERK and p38, but not JNK. Meanwhile, meclizine reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. On the other hand, meclizine decreased OVX-induced bone loss by repressing osteoclast activity. In conclusion, our results indicated that meclizine inhibits osteoclastogenesis via regulation of several RANKL signaling pathways and PXR was involved in the processes. Therefore, meclizine may be considered as a novel therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases.
Project description:Currently, there are limited therapeutic options against bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCA), which is primarily responsible for high mortality and morbidity in PCA patients. Enhanced osteoclastogenesis is an essential feature associated with metastatic PCA in the bone microenvironment. Silibinin, an effective chemopreventive agent, is in phase II clinical trials in PCA patients but its efficacy against PCA cells-induced osteoclastogenesis is largely unknown. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on PCA cells-induced osteoclastogenesis employing human PCA (PC3MM2, PC3, and C4-2B) and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. We also assessed silibinin effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL)-induced signaling associated with osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. Further, we analyzed silibinin effect on osteomimicry biomarkers in PCA cells. Results revealed that silibinin (30-90??M) inhibits PCA cells-induced osteoclast activity and differentiation in RAW264.7 cells via modulating expression of several cytokines (IGF-1, TGF-?, TNF-?, I-TAC, M-CSF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, etc.) that are important in osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, in RAW264.7 cells, silibinin decreased the RANKL-induced expression and nuclear localization of NFATc1, which is considered the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, silibinin decreased the RANKL-induced DNA binding activity of NFATc1 and its regulators NF-?B and AP1, and the protein expression of osteoclast specific markers (TRAP, OSCAR, and cathepsin K). Importantly, silibinin also decreased the expression of osteomimicry biomarkers (RANKL, Runx2, osteocalcin, and PTHrP) in cell culture (PC3 and C4-2B cells) and/or in PC3 tumors. Together, our findings showing that silibinin inhibits PCA cells-induced osteoclastogenesis, suggest that silibinin could be useful clinically against bone metastatic PCA.
Project description:We investigated the effects of physalin A, B, D, and F on osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL). The biological functions of different physalins were first predicted using an in silico bioinformatic tool (BATMAN-TCM). Afterwards, we tested cell viability and cell apoptosis rate to analyze the cytotoxicity of different physalins. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of physalins on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse bone-marrow macrophages (BMMs) using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. We found that physalin D has the best selectivity index (SI) among all analyzed physalins. We then confirmed the inhibitory effects of physalin D on osteoclast maturation and function by immunostaining of F-actin and a pit-formation assay. On the molecular level, physalin D attenuated RANKLevoked intracellular calcium ([Ca(2?)](i)) oscillation by inhibiting phosphorylation of phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2) and thus blocked the downstream activation of Ca2?/calmodulindependent protein kinases (CaMK)IV and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). An animal study showed that physalin D treatment rescues bone microarchitecture, prevents bone loss, and restores bone strength in a model of rapid bone loss induced by soluble RANKL. Taken together, these results suggest that physalin D inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss via suppressing the PLC?2-CaMK-CREB pathway. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(3): 154-159].
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family, which acts as an alarmin. Several studies suggested that IL-33 inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is considered a direct inducer of osteoclastogenesis. However, there has been no report regarding the effect of IL-33 on TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of IL-33 on TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In an in vitro analysis of osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast precursors, which were derived from bone marrow cells, were treated with or without IL-33 in the presence of TNF-?. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining solution was used to assess osteoclast formation. In an in vivo analysis of mouse calvariae, TNF-? with or without IL-33 was subcutaneously administrated into the supracalvarial region of mice daily for 5 days. Histological sections were stained for TRAP, and osteoclast numbers were determined. Using micro-CT reconstruction images, the ratio of bone destruction area on the calvariae was evaluated. The number of TRAP-positive cells induced by TNF-? was significantly decreased with IL-33 in vitro and in vivo. Bone resorption was also reduced. IL-33 inhibited I?B phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. These results suggest that IL-33 inhibited TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.
Project description:In addition to its thoroughly investigated role in bone formation, the osteoblast master transcription factor RUNX2 also promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Here we demonstrate that 17?-estradiol (E2), strongly inhibits RUNX2-mediated osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. Towards deciphering the underlying mechanism, we induced premature expression of RUNX2 in primary murine pre-osteoblasts, which resulted in robust differentiation of co-cultured splenocytes into mature osteoclasts. This was attributable to RUNX2-mediated increase in RANKL secretion, determined by ELISA, as well as to RUNX2-mediated increase in RANKL association with the osteoblast membrane, demonstrated using confocal fluorescence microscopy. The increased association with the osteoblast membrane was recapitulated by transiently expressed GFP-RANKL. E2 abolished the RUNX2-mediated increase in membrane-associated RANKL and GFP-RANKL, as well as the concomitant osteoclastogenesis. RUNX2-mediated RANKL cellular redistribution was attributable in part to a decrease in Opg expression, but E2 did not influence Opg expression either in the presence or absence of RUNX2. Diminution of RUNX2-mediated osteoclastogenesis by E2 occurred regardless of whether the pre-osteoclasts were derived from wild type or estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-knockout mice, suggesting that activated ER? inhibited osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis by acting in osteoblasts, possibly targeting RUNX2. Indeed, microarray analysis demonstrated global attenuation of the RUNX2 response by E2, including abrogation of Pstpip2 expression, which likely plays a critical role in membrane trafficking. Finally, the selective ER modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene mimicked E2 in abrogating the stimulatory effect of osteoblastic RUNX2 on osteoclast differentiation in the co-culture assay. Thus, E2 antagonizes RUNX2-mediated RANKL trafficking and subsequent osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RUNX2 and/or downstream mechanisms that regulate RANKL trafficking may lead to the development of improved SERMs and possibly non-hormonal therapeutic approaches to high turnover bone disease.