Project description:We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, enhances TGF-β-mediated EMT in A549 human lung cancer cells. RNA-sequencing analysis on CMT64 cells following TGF-β and/or TNF-α treatment revealed a subset of genes possibly regulated by TGF-β and/or TNF-α. Overall design: CMT64 cells were stimulated with 5 ng/ml of TGF-β and/or 10 ng/ml of TNF-α, and RNA-sequencing was performed ugsing Illumina HiSeq.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human umbilical vein endothelial cells following stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta singly or combined for 8 hr All stimulations were for 8 hr - TNF-α vs no cytokine; TGF-β1 vs no cytokine; TNF-α & TGF-β1 vs TNF-α alone; TNF-α & TGF-β1 vs TGF-β1 alone
Project description:Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) are peptides with multiple biological activities that influence neoplastic, immunologic and fibroproliferative diseases. There are clear interrelationships and overlap between the actions of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta(1) in lung fibrosis; therefore, we postulated that TNF-alpha may play a significant role in regulating TGF-beta(1) expression in lungs. We recently reported that TNF-alpha activates the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-specific pathway in fibroblasts resulting in stabilization of TGF-beta(1) mRNA and increased expression of TGF-beta(1). In the current study, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in TNF-alpha regulation of TGF-beta(1) expression. Nuclear run-on assays showed that treatment of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts with TNF-alpha increased transcription of the TGF-beta(1) gene in an ERK independent manner. Pre-treatment with the activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor curcumin attenuated TNF-alpha induced transcription of the TGF-beta(1) gene. TNF-alpha induced increased levels of c-Jun and C-Fos in the nucleus accompanied by phosphorylation of c-Jun. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, AP-1 binding to an AP-1 binding site found within the TGF-beta(1) promoter was increased in nuclear extracts from Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts treated with TNF-alpha. Together, these results suggest that TNF-alpha induces expression and DNA binding of AP-1 resulting in increased transcription of the TGF-beta(1) gene. It is essential to know which transcription pathways are activated because of the wide distribution of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta(1), the general lack of effective treatments for fibroproliferative disease and the possibility that targeting the correct transcription factors could be palliative.
Project description:Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) is an essential regulatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse facets of the injury and repair responses in the lung. The types of responses that it elicits can be appreciated in studies from our laboratory that demonstrated that the transgenic (Tg) overexpression of TGF-beta(1) in the murine lung causes epithelial apoptosis followed by fibrosis, inflammation, and parenchymal destruction. Because a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, is a key regulator of apoptosis, we hypothesized that p21 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TGF-beta(1)-induced tissue responses. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of TGF-beta(1) on the expression of p21 in the murine lung. We also characterized the effects of transgenic TGF-beta(1) in mice with wild-type and null mutant p21 loci. These studies demonstrate that TGF-beta(1) is a potent stimulator of p21 expression in the epithelial cells and macrophages in the murine lung. They also demonstrate that TGF-beta(1)-induced lung inflammation, fibrosis, myofibroblast accumulation, and alveolar destruction are augmented in the absence of p21, and that these alterations are associated with exaggerated levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Finally, our studies further demonstrated that TGF-beta(1) induces p21 via a TNF-alpha-signaling pathway and that p21 is a negative modulator of TGF-beta(1)-induced TNF-alpha expression. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that p21 regulates TGF-beta(1)-induced apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and alveolar remodeling by interacting with TNF-alpha-signaling pathways.
Project description:SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: The tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta (TNF-α, TNF-β) can regulate a wide range of cellular responses and facilitate tumor growth and progression. However, the effects of the polymorphisms TNF-α-238G>A and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 L10P on breast cancer risk are still unclear or inconclusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to provide a full estimation of the association with breast cancer, a meta-analysis of the most valid literature was performed by searching the databases PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, CNKI, and Google Scholar. RESULTS: For TNF-α-238G>A, 3 studies including 35,578 cases and 38,095 controls were selected. For TGF-β1 L10P, 11 studies including 7,903 cases and 8,797 controls were selected. For TNF-α-238G>A, a significant association with breast cancer risk was found in the recessive model (odds ratio = 0.954, 95% confidence interval 0.912-0.998), but other models did not reach significance. For TGF-β1 L10P, no significant correlations were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that TNF-α-238G>A may be associated with breast cancer incidence, although significance is weak. Its role as an indicator for cancer diagnosis should be studied more. Moreover, for TGF-β1 L10P, further comprehensive meta-analyses are necessary.
Project description:Changes of cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) reflect immunologic reactions of the lung in pulmonary malignancies. Detection of biomarkers in BALF might serve as an important method for differential diagnosis of lung cancer. A total of 78 patients admitted into hospital with suspected lung cancer were included in our study. BALF samples were obtained from all patients, and were analyzed for TGF-β1, IL-6, and TNF-α using commercially available sandwich ELISA kits. The levels of TGF-β1 in BALF were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer compared with patients with benign diseases (P = 0.003). However, no significant difference of IL-6 (P = 0.61) or TNF-α (P = 0.72) in BALF was observed between malignant and nonmalignant groups. With a cut-off value of 10.85 pg/ml, TGF-β1 showed a sensitivity of 62.2%, and a specificity of 60.6%, in predicting the malignant nature of pulmonary disease. Our data suggest that TGF-β1 in BALF might be a valuable biomarker for lung cancer. However, measurement of IL-6 or TNF-α in BALF has poor diagnostic value in lung cancer.
Project description:The induction of regulatory T (T reg) cells holds considerable potential as a treatment for autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that CD4+CD25hi T reg cells isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a defect in their ability to suppress proinflammatory cytokine production by CD4+CD25- [corrected] T cells. This defect, however, was overcome after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibody (infliximab) therapy. Here, we demonstrate that infliximab therapy gives rise to a CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ T reg cell population, which mediates suppression via transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin 10, and lacks CD62L expression, thereby distinguishing this T reg cell subset from natural T reg cells present in healthy individuals and patients with active RA. In vitro, infliximab induced the differentiation of CD62L- T reg cells from CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from active RA patients, a process dependent on TGF-beta. In spite of the potent suppressor capacity displayed by this CD62L- T reg cell population, the natural CD62L+ T reg cells remained defective in infliximab-treated patients. These results suggest that anti-TNF-alpha therapy in RA patients generates a newly differentiated population of T reg cells, which compensates for the defective natural T reg cells. Therefore, manipulation of a proinflammatory environment could represent a therapeutic strategy for the induction of T reg cells and the restoration of tolerance.
Project description:The normal structure and function of articular cartilage are the result of a precisely balanced interaction between anabolic and catabolic processes. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of growth factors generally exerts an anabolic or repair response; in contrast, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) exert a strong catabolic effect. Recent evidence has shown that IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha, and the TGF-beta signaling pathways share an antagonistic relationship. The aim of this study was to determine whether the modulation of the response of articular chondrocytes to TGF-beta by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha signaling pathways occurs through regulation of activity and availability of mothers against DPP (Drosophila) human homologue (Smad) proteins.Human articular chondrocytes isolated from knee joints from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or normal bovine chondrocytes were cultured in suspension in poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-coated dishes with either 10% fetal bovine serum media or serum-deprived media 6h before treatment with IL-1beta alone, TNF-alpha alone or IL-1beta followed by TGF-beta. Nuclear extracts were examined by electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and Smad3/4 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding. Nuclear extracts were also subjected to the TranSignal Protein/DNA array (Panomics, Redwood City, CA) enabling the simultaneous semiquantitative assessment of DNA-binding activity of 54 different transcription factors. Nuclear phospho-Smad2/3 and total Smad7 protein expression in whole cell lysates were studied by Western blot. Cytoplasmic Smad7, type II collagen alpha 1 (COL2A1), aggrecan and SRY-related high mobility group-Box gene 9 (SOX-9) mRNA expression were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The DNA-binding activity of Smad3/4 in the TranSignal Protein/DNA array was downregulated by TNF-alpha (46%) or IL-1beta treatment (42%). EMSA analysis showed a consistent reduction in Smad3/4 DNA-binding activity in human articular chondrocytes treated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. TGF-beta-induced Smad3/4 DNA-binding activity and Smad2/3 phosphorylation were also reduced following pretreatment with IL-1beta in human OA and bovine chondrocytes. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that IL-1beta partially reversed the TGF-beta stimulation of Smad7 mRNA and protein levels in TGF-beta-treated human OA cells. In contrast, TGF-beta-stimulated COL2A1, aggrecan, and SOX-9 mRNA levels were abrogated by IL-1beta.IL-1beta or TNF-alpha exerted a suppressive effect on Smad3/4 DNA-binding activity in human articular chondrocytes, as well as on TGF-beta-induced stimulation of Smad3/4 DNA-binding activity and Smad2/3 phosphorylation in human OA and bovine articular chondrocytes. IL-1beta partially reversed the increase in TGF-beta-stimulated Smad7 mRNA or protein levels suggesting that Smad7 may not be involved in the suppression of TGF-beta signaling induced by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha in articular chondrocytes. The balance between the IL-1beta or TNF-alpha and the TGF-beta signaling pathways is crucial for maintenance of articular cartilage homeostasis and its disruption likely plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of OA.
Project description:Lymphatic systems play important roles in the maintenance of fluid homeostasis and undergo anatomical and physiological changes during inflammation and aging. While lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) undergo mesenchymal transition in response to transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), the molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of LECs remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of TGF-?2 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), an inflammatory cytokine, on EndMT using human skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). TGF-?2-treated HDLECs showed increased expression of SM22?, a mesenchymal cell marker accompanied by increased cell motility and vascular permeability, suggesting HDLECs to undergo EndMT. Our data also revealed that TNF-? could enhance TGF-?2-induced EndMT of HDLECs. Furthermore, both cytokines induced the production of Activin A while decreasing the expression of its inhibitory molecule Follistatin, and thus enhancing EndMT. Finally, we demonstrated that human dermal lymphatic vessels underwent EndMT during aging, characterized by double immunostaining for LYVE1 and SM22?. These results suggest that both TGF-? and TNF-? signals play a central role in EndMT of LECs and could be potential targets for senile edema.
Project description:1. The effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 and TNF-alpha inhibition were assessed on the local and remote injuries following intestinal ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. 2. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram dose-dependently (1 - 10 mg kg(-1)) suppressed the local (intestine) and remote (lung) increases in vascular permeability and neutrophil recruitment following mild I/R injury. SB207499 (ariflo), a structurally-distinct PDE4 inhibitor, also suppressed the injuries following mild I/R injury. 3. In a severe model of I/R injury, treatment with rolipram (10 mg kg(-1)) partially reversed the local and remote increases in vascular permeability, neutrophil recruitment, intestinal haemorrhage and intestinal LTB(4) concentrations. The anti-TNF-alpha anti-serum was more effective than rolipram at inhibiting local and remote injuries and prevented the lethality associated with severe I/R. 4. Rolipram and anti-TNF-alpha prevented the increase in the concentrations of TNF-alpha in the lung and intestine, but rolipram only partially inhibited the elevation of this cytokine in serum. Rolipram had little effect on the increases of IL-1 beta concentrations in lung and serum, whereas treatment with anti-TNF-alpha markedly increased the concentration of this cytokine. Concentrations of IL-10 rose significantly in the lung and serum and these increases were blocked by rolipram or anti-TNF-alpha. 5. The capacity of PDE4 inhibitors to block the recruitment of neutrophils into tissues, the production of LTB(4) and of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 appear to underlie their anti-inflammatory effects in our model of I/R injury. Overall, PDE4 inhibition was less effective than inhibition of TNF-alpha for protection against I/R injury.