Project description:BACKGROUND:The wetlands used for some agricultural activities constitute productive breeding sites for many mosquito species. Thus, the agricultural use of insecticide targeting other pests may select for insecticide resistance in malaria mosquitoes. The purpose of this study is to clarify some knowledge gaps on the role of agrochemicals in the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of utmost importance for vector control. METHODS:Using the CDC bottle test and the log-probit analysis, we investigated for the first time the resistance levels of Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes to neonicotinoids, insecticides used exclusively for crop protection in Côte d'Ivoire. The study was conducted in two agricultural regions (Tiassale and Gagnoa) and one non-agricultural region (Vitre) between June and August 2017 using clothianidin, acetamiprid and imidacloprid. RESULTS:Mosquito populations from Tiassale and Gagnoa (agricultural settings) were determined to be resistant to acetamiprid with mortality rates being <?85% at 24?h post-exposure. In Vitre (non-agricultural area) however, the mosquito population was susceptible to acetamiprid. In all three localities, mosquito populations were resistant to imidacloprid (mortality rates were 60% in Vitre, 37% in Tiassale, and 13% in Gagnoa) and completely susceptible to clothianidin (100% mortality). An. coluzzii represented 100% of mosquito collected in Gagnoa, 86% in Tiassale and 96% in Vitre. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides strong evidence that agricultural use of insecticides can cause insecticide resistance in malaria vector populations. Insecticide resistance driven by agrochemical usage should be considered when vector control strategies are developed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The control of most vectors of malaria is threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One factor that has been hitherto largely overlooked is the potential effects of insecticide resistance on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria: are insecticide-resistant mosquitoes as good vectors of Plasmodium as susceptible ones? The drastic physiological changes that accompany the evolution of insecticide resistance may indeed alter the ability of vectors to transmit diseases, a possibility that, if confirmed, could have major epidemiological consequences. METHODS: Using a novel experimental system consisting of the avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium relictum) and its natural vector (the mosquito Culex pipiens), two of the most common mechanisms of insecticide resistance (esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification) were investigated for their effect on mosquito infection rate and parasite burden. For this purpose two types of experiments were carried out using (i) insecticide-resistant and susceptible laboratory isogenic lines of Cx. pipiens and (ii) wild Cx. pipiens collected from a population where insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes coexist in sympatry. RESULTS: The isogenic line and wild-caught mosquito experiments were highly consistent in showing no effect of either esterase overproduction or of acetylcholinesterase modification on either the infection rate or on the oocyst burden of mosquitoes. The only determinant of these traits was blood meal size, which was similar across the different insecticide resistant categories in both experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Insecticide resistance was found to have no effect on Plasmodium development within the mosquito. This is the first time this question has been addressed using a natural mosquito-Plasmodium combination, while taking care to standardize the genetic background against which the insecticide resistance genes operate. Infection rate and oocyst burden are but two of the factors that determine the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes. Other key determinants of parasite transmission, such as mosquito longevity and behaviour, or the parasite's incubation time, need to be investigated before concluding on whether insecticide resistance influences the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria.
Project description:The use of agrochemicals in vegetable production could influence the selection for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information on the potential contribution of agrochemicals to insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes breeding on vegetable farms in southern Benin. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices study was conducted with 75 vegetable farmers from Houeyiho and Seme to determine the main agrochemicals used in vegetable production, and the concentration and frequency of application, among other details. Mosquitoes and breeding water were sampled from the farms for analysis. Bioassays were conducted on mosquitoes, while breeding water was screened for heavy metal and pesticide residue contamination. Lambda-cyhalothrin was the main insecticide (97.5%) used by farmers, and Anopheles coluzzii was the main mosquito identified. This mosquito species was resistant (30-63% mortality rate) to ?-cyhalothrin. It was also observed that 16.7% of the examined breeding sites were contaminated with ?-cyhalothrin residues. Furthermore, copper contamination detected in mosquito breeding sites showed a positive correlation (r?=?0.81; P?=?0.0017) with mosquito resistance to ?-cyhalothrin. The presence of copper in ?-cyhalothrin-free breeding sites, where mosquitoes have developed resistance to ?-cyhalothrin, suggests the involvement of copper in the insecticide resistance of malaria vectors; this, however, needs further investigation.
Project description:Insecticide resistance raises concerns for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, its impact on parasite transmission could be diverse when considering the ecological interactions between vector and parasite. Thus we investigated the fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance and Plasmodium falciparum infection as well as their interactive cost on Anopheles gambiae survival and fecundity. In absence of infection, we observed a cost on fecundity associated with insecticide resistance. However, survival was higher for mosquito bearing the kdr mutation and equal for those with the ace-1(R) mutation compared to their insecticide susceptible counterparts. Interestingly, Plasmodium infection reduced survival only in the insecticide resistant strains but not in the susceptible one and infection was associated with an increase in fecundity independently of the strain considered. This study provides evidence for a survival cost associated with infection by Plasmodium parasite only in mosquito selected for insecticide resistance. This suggests that the selection of insecticide resistance mutation may have disturbed the interaction between parasites and vectors, resulting in increased cost of infection. Considering the fitness cost as well as other ecological aspects of this natural mosquito-parasite combination is important to predict the epidemiological impact of insecticide resistance.
Project description:Malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis are three of the most common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Malaria and lymphatic filariasis can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. The overall prevalence and health significance of malaria and filariasis have made them top priorities for global elimination and control programmes. Pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito vectors represents a highly significant problem to malaria control worldwide. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate insecticide resistance, including rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. Anopheles sinensis, an important malaria and filariasis vector in Southeast Asia, represents an interesting mosquito species for examining the consequences of long-term insecticide rotation use on resistance. We examined insecticide resistance in two An. Sinensis populations from central and southern China against pyrethroids, organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates, which are the major classes of insecticides recommended for indoor residual spray. We found that the mosquito populations were highly resistant to the four classes of insecticides. High frequency of kdr mutation was revealed in the central population, whereas no kdr mutation was detected in the southern population. The frequency of G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene was moderate in both populations. The classification and regression trees (CART) statistical analysis found that metabolic detoxification was the most important resistance mechanism, whereas target site insensitivity of L1014 kdr mutation played a less important role. Our results indicate that metabolic detoxification was the dominant mechanism of resistance compared to target site insensitivity, and suggests that long-term rotational use of various insecticides has led An. sinensis to evolve a high insecticide resistance. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring multiple resistances to chemical insecticides in mosquito vectors and it has important implication for designing and implementing vector resistance management strategies.
Project description:This microarray study aimed at evaluating the impact of mosquito chemical environment on the selection of insecticide resistance mechanisms. Here the mosquito Aedes aegypti was used as a model to perform a laboratory experiment combining mosquito larvae exposure to a sub-lethal dose of xenobiotic and their selection with the insecticide permethrin. After ten generations, bioassays and a transcriptome profiling with the 15K microarray Aedes detox chip plus microarray were performed comparatively on all strains.
Project description:Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies). The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%). Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed.
2012-01-01 | S-EPMC3283601 | BioStudies
Project description:Mosquito microbiota and insecticide resistance
Project description:A previous study identified 3 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous mutations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus, the prevalence of which were strongly correlated with levels of resistance and increased dramatically following insecticide selection. However, it is unclear whether this is unique to this specific resistant population or is a common mechanism in field mosquito populations in response to insecticide pressure. The current study therefore further characterized these mutations and their combinations in other field and permethrin selected Culex mosquitoes, finding that the co-existence of all 9 mutations was indeed correlated with the high levels of permethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Comparison of mutation combinations revealed several common mutation combinations presented across different field and permethrin selected populations in response to high levels of insecticide resistance, demonstrating that the co-existence of multiple mutations is a common event in response to insecticide resistance across different Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito populations.
Project description:Target site insensitivity resulting from point mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel of the insect nervous system is known to be of primary importance in the development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. This study shifts current research paradigms by conducting, for the first time, a global analysis of all the naturally occurring mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations, as well as mutation combinations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus and analyzing their evolutionary and heritable feature and roles in insecticide resistance. Through a systematic analysis of comparing nucleotide polymorphisms in the entire sodium channel cDNAs of individuals between susceptible and resistant mosquito strains, between field parental mosquitoes and their permethrin selected offspring, and among different mosquito groups categorized by their levels of tolerance to specific permethrin concentrations within and among the mosquito strains of the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, 3 nonsynonymous (A(109)S, L(982)F, and W(1573)R) and 6 synonymous (L(852), G(891), A(1241), D(1245), P(1249), and G(1733)) mutations were identified. The co-existence of all 9 mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous, and their homozygousity were found to be important factors for high levels of resistance. Our study, for the first time, provide a strong case demonstrating the co-existence of both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations in the sodium channel of resistant mosquitoes in response to insecticide resistance and the inheritance of these mutations in the offspring of field mosquito strains following insecticide selection.