Project description:To systematically study the chemical constituents in Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits, nine phenylethanoid glycosides were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC correlations, and HPLC analysis of sugar residue. Nine phenylethanoid glycosides, namely, magnoloside Ia (1), magnoloside Ic (2), crassifolioside (3), magnoloside Ib (4), magnoloside IIIa (5), magnoloside IVa (6), magnoloside IIa (7), magnoloside IIb (8) and magnoloside Va (9), were first isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits alcohol extract. Free radical scavenging activities of the nine phenylethanoid glycosides were assessed using the DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Simultaneously, protective effects of all compounds against free radical-induced oxidative damage were evaluated by two different kinds of mitochondrial damage model. The protective effects were assessed by mitochondrial swelling, the formations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All phenylethanoid glycosides showed significant protective effects.
Project description:Mood disorders represent one of the most prevalent and costly psychiatric diseases worldwide. The current therapies are generally characterized by several well-known side effects which limit their prolonged use. The use of herbal medicine for the management of several psychiatric conditions is becoming more established, as it is considered a safer support to conventional pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of a fixed combination of L-theanine, Magnolia officinalis, and Melissa officinalis (TMM) in an attempt to evaluate how the multiple modulations of different physiological systems may contribute to reducing mood disorders. TMM showed an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like activity in vivo, which was related to a neuroprotective effect in an in vitro model of excitotoxicity. The effect of TMM was not altered by the presence of flumazenil, thus suggesting a non-benzodiazepine-like mechanism of action. On the contrary, a significant reduction in the effect was observed in animals and neuronal cells co-treated with AM251, a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may be involved in the TMM mechanism of action. In conclusion, TMM may represent a useful and safe candidate for the management of mood disorders with an innovative mechanism of action, particularly as an adjuvant to conventional therapies.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME) on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor ?-subunit (IR?) and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5?g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery.
Project description:Two honokiol dimers, houpulins A and B (1 and 2), and two magnolol derivatives, houpulins C and D (3 and 4), were isolated and characterized from an ethanol extract obtained from the roots of Magnolia officinalis. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses, which included 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectrometry data. These four oligomers possess new carbon skeletons postulated to be biosynthesized from the coupling of three or four C6-C3 subunits. In addition, the new oligomers were evaluated for inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release, and houpulin B (2) was identified as a new anti-inflammatory lead compound.
Project description:Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a perennial, dioecious crop. Genomic DNA samples were prepared from five A. officinalis individuals that differ in sex and phenotypes, and sequenced with the MinION nanopore sequencer. The obtained data were 1.5-5 Gb/sample, and the average read length was larger than 1.4 kb for all the samples. The resulting reads were mapped to the existing A. officinalis genome sequence. The existing A. officinalis transcript sequences were mapped to the MinION-derived reads. On the basis of these mapping results, flanking sequences of five partial gene fragments that previously had not been mapped to any region of the existing genome were determined by genomic PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. These sequences enabled to estimate the genomic positions of those five partial gene fragments. The MinION-derived data and the flanking sequences of the five gene fragments were deposited in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) SRA (Sequence Read Archive) database and the NCBI Nucleotide database, respectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extracts of <i>Scutellaria baicalensis</i> root (SBR) and <i>Magnolia officinalis</i> barks (MOB) possess significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties; however, these also exert adverse effects such as cytotoxicity. To overcome the adverse effects, we formulated a combination of the extracts, named GenoTX-407, with SBR and MOB extracts mixed in 5:1 ratio. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of SBR and MOB extracts and GenoTX-407 were evaluated. METHODS:To optimize the extraction conditions of SBR and MOB, different ethanol concentrations and extraction times and treatments of the extracts with different solvents for varying time periods were tested. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed via NO scavenging assay and analysis of anti-inflammatory activity-related gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Agar disk diffusion and microdilution assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH assay and analyses of peroxidation and antioxidant-related protein expression in HeLa cells. RESULTS:Extraction with 0% ethanol for 2 h and 1.5% phosphoric acid for 0.5 h yielded maximum SBR extracts. For MOB, 50% ethanol extraction for 2 h followed by further extraction in hexane for 0.5 h yielded the highest extracts. SBR (46.1 ± 0.9 %) and MOB (48.9 ± 1.0 %) extracts effectively inhibited NO production, and dose-dependently reduced the expression of <i>TNF-?</i>, <i>iNOS</i>, <i>NF-?B</i>, <i>COX2</i>, and <i>IL-6</i>. MOB and GenoTX-407 inhibited the growth of <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Candida albicans</i>, and <i>Propionibacterium acnes</i>, as evidenced in disk diffusion and microdilution assays. SBR (EC50, 107.7 µg/mL and 38.3 µg/mL), MOB (62.41 µg/mL and 72.45 µg/mL), and GenoTX-407 (7.7 µg/mL and 26.4 µg/mL) exhibited excellent antioxidant potency and could scavenge free radicals of DPPH and lipid peroxidation; additionally, SOD, CAT, HO-1, and Nrf2 expression was increased in HeLa cells. SBR showed more potent antioxidant activity than MOB. Contrastingly, MOB exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities than SBR. Interestingly, GenoTX-407 was the most efficient in all the assays, compared with SBR and MOB. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated that GenoTX-407, the combination of SBR and MOB, is a potential drug candidate exerting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects via the Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-?B signaling pathways.