Project description:Although the specific epithet of Callicarpa minutiflora Y. Y. Qian has been revised for many times, during the study of the genus Callicarpa, we find that Callicarpa minutiflora Y. Y. Qian is identical to Callicarpa longifolia Lamarck by a series of morphologic characters. In order to avoid more confusion, here Callicarpa minutiflora Y. Y. Qian is reduced as a synonym of Callicarpa longifolia Lamarck.
Project description:Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4?2)-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1), (4?2)-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2), and 16(R&S)- methoxycleroda-4(18),13-dien-15,16-olide (3), were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae) together with five known compounds (4-8). The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6) and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7) showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.
Project description:Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.
Project description:As part of a comprehensive systematic study on the genus Eriobotrya and its close relatives from the E & SE Asia, new typifications of 23 names are presented here, along with some nomenclatural notes of the names involved. We lectotypified 22 names including accepted names and synonyms. They are: E. acuminatissima, E. bengalensis var. angustifolia; E. bengalensis f. intermedia, E. brackloi, E. brackloi var. atrichophylla, E. elliptica var. petelotii, E. fragrans var. furfuracea, E. glabrescens, E. grandiflora, E. henryi, E. oblongifolia, E. petiolata, E. platyphylla, E. poilanei, E. prinoides, E. prinoides var. laotica, E. salwinensis, E. serrata, E. stipularis, Hiptage cavaleriei, Photinia longifolia, Symplocos seguinii. One neotype of Photinia dubia was also proposed in this study, and E. pseudoraphiolepis and Mespilus cuila were identified as superfluous names. In addition, we also summarized the typification of 18 names for taxonomic reference: E. angustissima, E. balgooyi, E. condaoensis, E. × daduheensis, E. elliptica, E. fulvicoma, E. fragrans, E. glabrescens var. victoriensis, E. hookeriana, E. latifolia, E. obovata, E. malipoensis, E. merguiensis, E. tengyuehensis, E. wardii, Mespilus bengalensis, Photinia deflexa, and M. japonica.
Project description:Plants of the genus Callicarpa are known to possess several medicinal effects. The constituents of the Taiwan endemic plant Callicarpa hypoleucophylla have never been studied. Therefore, C. hypoleucophylla was selected for our phytochemical investigation. Two new clerodane-type diterpenoids, named callihypolins A (1) and B (2), along with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves and twigs of the Lamiaceae plant C. hypoleucophylla and then characterized. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, specifically, two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-9 based on the suppression of superoxide anion generation and elastase release was evaluated. Among the isolates, compounds 2-4 showed anti-inflammatory activity (9.52-32.48% inhibition at the concentration 10 ?m) by suppressing superoxide anion generation and elastase release. Our findings not only expand the description of the structural diversity of the compounds present in plants of the genus Callicarpa but also highlight the possibility of developing anti-inflammatory agents from Callicarpa endemic species.
Project description:CONTEXT:Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) commonly known as Tongkat Ali is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. The plant extracts (particularly roots) are widely used for the treatment of cough and fever besides having antimalarial, antidiabetic, anticancer and aphrodisiac activities. OBJECTIVES:This study assesses the extent of adulteration of E. longifolia herbal medicinal products (HMPs) using DNA barcoding validated by HPLC analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Chloroplastic rbcL and nuclear ITS2 barcode regions were used in the present study. The sequences generated from E. longifolia HMPs were compared to sequences in the GenBank using MEGABLAST to verify their taxonomic identity. These results were verified by neighbor-joining tree analysis in which branches of unknown specimen are compared to the reference sequences established from this study and other retrieved from the GenBank. The HMPs were also analysed using HPLC analysis for the presence of eurycomanone bioactive marker. RESULTS:Identification using DNA barcoding revealed that 37% of the tested HMPs were authentic while 27% were adulterated with the ITS2 barcode region proven to be the ideal marker. The validation of the authenticity using HPLC analysis showed a situation in which a species which was identified as authentic was found not to contain the expected chemical compound. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:DNA barcoding should be used as the first screening step for testing of HMPs raw materials. However, integration of DNA barcoding with HPLC analysis will help to provide detailed knowledge about the safety and efficacy of the HMPs.
Project description:Increased public awareness of nutritional and health issues has resulted in the increasing consumption of food and herbal products made from the root of Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida ex Sanjappa & Predeep (kudzu vine) and P. montana var. thomsonii (Benth.) M. R. Almeida. The famous herbal medicine Yufeng Ningxin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, can be legally produced only using P. montana var. lobata. However, precise identification at the subspecies level is usually challenging when these products' ingredients lose their morphological characteristics after deep processing. Here, six herbarium specimens, 21 expert-identified original plant samples, 30 raw material samples, 10 food products and 12 herbal products were collected to test the subspecies-level authentication abilities of ITS2 sequences. The results showed that ITS2 sequences can distinguish P. montana var. lobata from P. montana var. thomsonii with stable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. A total of 93.3% of raw material samples were consistent with the markings on their labels, but only 50% of Gegen Powder samples were made from P. montana var. lobata. High-quality ITS2 sequences were successfully obtained from nine of the 12 herbal products using Sanger sequencing. Substitution and fungal contamination were detected in 3 herbal products by further DNA metabarcoding, even though thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tests verified that the products met existing quality standards. This study demonstrated that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for the identification of P. montana var. lobata and P. montana var. thomsonii at the subspecies level, and we conclude that DNA barcodes can be broadly applied to trace the raw materials of food and herbal products.