Project description:Autophagy mutants display early yellowing phenotype and major metabolic changes under both ideal and limiting nitrate supplies. We used Affymetrix microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression underlying metabolic and cellular changes in autophagy mutants and wild type Arabidopsis rosettes grown under both low or high nitrate conditions. Fold changes data between mutants and wild type have been published (www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.114.124677) Overall design: Three genotypes wild type (Col-0), atg5-3 mutant (SALK_02060) and atg9 (SALK_130796) were grown under high nitrate (HN) for 30 days (T30) or low nitrate LN conditions for 30 days (T30) and 60 days (T60). Two consecutive cultures (C1 and C2) were performed at several month interval. For the two cultures and each genotype, rosettes of >6 plants were harvested and mixed to extract RNA.
Project description:Autophagy is a pathway in which a cell degrades part of its cytoplasm in vacuoles or lysosomes. To identify the physiological functions of autophagy in plants, we disrupted ATG5, an autophagy-related gene, in Physcomitrella, and confirmed that atg5 mutants are deficient in the process of autophagy. On carbon or nitrogen starvation medium, atg5 colonies turned yellow earlier than the wild-type (WT) colonies, showing that Physcomitrella atg5 mutants, like yeast and Arabidopsis, are sensitive to nutrient starvation. In the dark, even under nutrient-sufficient conditions, colonies turned yellow and the net degradation of chlorophyll and Rubisco protein occurred together with the upregulation of several senescence-associated genes. Yellowing reactions were inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that protonemal colonies undergo dark-induced senescence like the green leaves of higher plants. Such senescence responses in the dark occurred earlier in atg5 colonies than WT colonies. The sugar content was almost the same between WT and atg5 colonies, indicating that the early-senescence phenotype of atg5 is not explained by sugar deficiency. However, the levels of 7 amino acids showed significantly different alteration between atg5 and WT in the dark: 6 amino acids, particularly arginine and alanine, were much more deficient in the atg5 mutants, irrespective of the early degradation of Rubisco protein. On nutrient-sufficient medium supplemented with casamino acids, the early-senescence phenotype was slightly moderated. We propose that the early-senescence phenotype in atg5 mutants is partly explained by amino acid imbalance because of the lack of cytoplasmic degradation by autophagy in Physcomitrella.
Project description:Macroautophagy is a process through which eukaryotic cells degrade large substrates including organelles, protein aggregates, and invading pathogens. Over 40 autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been identified through forward-genetic screens in yeast. Although homology-based analyses have identified conserved ATG genes in plants, only a few atg mutants have emerged from forward-genetic screens in Arabidopsis thaliana. We developed a screen that consistently recovers Arabidopsis atg mutations by exploiting mutants with defective LON2/At5g47040, a protease implicated in peroxisomal quality control. Arabidopsis lon2 mutants exhibit reduced responsiveness to the peroxisomally-metabolized auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), heightened degradation of several peroxisomal matrix proteins, and impaired processing of proteins harboring N-terminal peroxisomal targeting signals; these defects are ameliorated by preventing autophagy. We optimized a lon2 suppressor screen to expedite recovery of additional atg mutants. After screening mutagenized lon2-2 seedlings for restored IBA responsiveness, we evaluated stabilization and processing of peroxisomal proteins, levels of several ATG proteins, and levels of the selective autophagy receptor NBR1/At4g24690, which accumulates when autophagy is impaired. We recovered 21 alleles disrupting 6 ATG genes: ATG2/At3g19190, ATG3/At5g61500, ATG5/At5g17290, ATG7/At5g45900, ATG16/At5g50230, and ATG18a/At3g62770. Twenty alleles were novel, and 3 of the mutated genes lack T-DNA insertional alleles in publicly available repositories. We also demonstrate that an insertional atg11/At4g30790 allele incompletely suppresses lon2 defects. Finally, we show that NBR1 is not necessary for autophagy of lon2 peroxisomes and that NBR1 overexpression is not sufficient to trigger autophagy of seedling peroxisomes, indicating that Arabidopsis can use an NBR1-independent mechanism to target peroxisomes for autophagic degradation. Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy-related; ATI: ATG8-interacting protein; Col-0: Columbia-0; DSK2: dominant suppressor of KAR2; EMS: ethyl methanesulfonate; GFP: green fluorescent protein; IAA: indole-3-acetic acid; IBA: indole-3-butyric acid; ICL: isocitrate lyase; MLS: malate synthase; NBR1: Next to BRCA1 gene 1; PEX: peroxin; PMDH: peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase; PTS: peroxisomal targeting signal; thiolase: 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase; UBA: ubiquitin-associated; WT: wild type.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of rossette leaves comparing wild type (Col-0) and the mutant (hsi2-5) under no drought or simulated drought stress. Two-condition experiment; wild type (col-0) vs. mutant (hsi2-5). Three stages of drought; no drought (or stage 0), mild drought or soil drying but no visible wiliting (or stage 1), visible wilting (stage 2). At stage 0, four biological replicates of the wild type/mutant co-hybridized, at stage 1 and stage 2, three biological replicates of the wild type/mutant co-hybridized.
Project description:Macroautophagy has been shown to be important for the cellular remodelling required for Leishmania differentiation. We now demonstrate that L. major contains a functional ATG12-ATG5 conjugation system, which is required for ATG8-dependent autophagosome formation. Nascent autophagosomes were found commonly associated with the mitochondrion. L. major mutants lacking ATG5 (?atg5) were viable as promastigotes but were unable to form autophagosomes, had morphological abnormalities including a much reduced flagellum, were less able to differentiate and had greatly reduced virulence to macrophages and mice. Analyses of the lipid metabolome of ?atg5 revealed marked elevation of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in comparison to wild type parasites. The ?atg5 mutants also had increased mitochondrial mass but reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and higher levels of reactive oxygen species. These findings indicate that the lack of ATG5 and autophagy leads to perturbation of the phospholipid balance in the mitochondrion, possibly through ablation of membrane use and conjugation of mitochondrial PE to ATG8 for autophagosome biogenesis, resulting in a dysfunctional mitochondrion with impaired oxidative ability and energy generation. The overall result of this is reduced virulence.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Autophagy and ER stress are involved in maintaining some well-orchestrated mechanisms aimed at either restoring cellular homeostasis or performing cell death. Autophagy is a well-defined process which governs overall cellular stress outcomes. Selective degradation of the ER mediated by autophagy occurs through a specific type of autophagy called ER-phagy, which ensures ER protein homeostasis.<h4>Methods</h4>Immunoblotting and RT-PCR were used to evaluate the expression of ATG5 and ATG7 in chondrocyte. Western blotting, Flow cytometry,immunofluorescence cell staining and confocal microscope were used to examine the effect of ATG5 and ATG7 on autophagy, ER stress, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation. Transmission electron microscope and confocal microscope were performed to visualize the autophagy flux and autolysosome formation. The role of ATG5 and ATG7 overexpression on the PERK pathway inhibitor were detected by immunoblotting and treatment with inhibitors.<h4>Results</h4>In current study, we demonstrated that Tm-induced ER stress can activate autophagy while Rapamycin-induced autophagy can inhibit ER stress in chondrocyte. Autophagy related protein ATG5 or ATG7 can promote autophagy and inhibit ER stress individually, and their combined effect can further improve the autophagy enhancement and the ER stress repression. Moreover, ATG5, ATG7 and ATG5?+?ATG7 lead cells into more S phase, increase the number of S phase and inhibit apoptosis as well. ATG5, ATG7 and ATG5?+?ATG7 regulate autophagy, ER stress, apoptosis and cell cycle through PERK signaling, a vital UPR branch pathway.<h4>Conclusions</h4>ATG5 and ATG7 connect autophagy with ER stress through PERK signaling. The protective effect of ATG5/7 overexpression on chondrocyte survival relys on PERK signaling. The effect of siPERK and siNrf2 on the cytoprotective effect of ATG5/7 are of synergism, while the effect of siPERK and siATF4 are of antagonism. PERK signal may be the pivot for autophagy, ER homeostasis and ER-phagy in chondrocyte.
Project description:Autophagy has been implicated in the ageing process, but whether autophagy activation extends lifespan in mammals is unknown. Here we show that ubiquitous overexpression of Atg5, a protein essential for autophagosome formation, extends median lifespan of mice by 17.2%. We demonstrate that moderate overexpression of Atg5 in mice enhances autophagy, and that Atg5 transgenic mice showed anti-ageing phenotypes, including leanness, increased insulin sensitivity and improved motor function. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts cultured from Atg5 transgenic mice are more tolerant to oxidative damage and cell death induced by oxidative stress, and this tolerance was reversible by treatment with an autophagy inhibitor. Our observations suggest that the leanness and lifespan extension in Atg5 transgenic mice may be the result of increased autophagic activity.
Project description:Autophagy is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis during times of stress, and is thought to play important roles in both tumorigenesis and tumor cell survival. Formation of autophagosomes, which mediate delivery of cytoplasmic cargo to lysosomes, requires multiple autophagy-related (ATG) protein complexes, including the ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex. Herein, we report that a molecular ATG5 "conjugation switch", comprised of competing ATG12 and ubiquitin conjugation reactions, integrates ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex assembly with protein quality control of its otherwise highly unstable subunits. This conjugation switch is tightly regulated by ATG16L1, which binds to free ATG5 and mutually protects both proteins from ubiquitin conjugation and proteasomal degradation, thereby instead promoting the irreversible conjugation of ATG12 to ATG5. The resulting ATG12-ATG5 conjugate, in turn, displays enhanced affinity for ATG16L1 and thus fully stabilizes the ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex. Most importantly, we find in multiple tumor types that ATG5 somatic mutations and alternative mRNA splicing specifically disrupt the ATG16L1-binding pocket in ATG5 and impair the essential ATG5-ATG16L1 interactions that are initially required for ATG12-ATG5 conjugation. Finally, we provide evidence that ATG16L2, which is overexpressed in several cancers relative to ATG16L1, hijacks the conjugation switch by competing with ATG16L1 for binding to ATG5. While ATG16L2 stabilizes ATG5 and enables ATG12-ATG5 conjugation, this endogenous dominant-negative inhibitor simultaneously displaces ATG16L1, resulting in its proteasomal degradation and a block in autophagy. Thus, collectively, our findings provide novel insights into ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex assembly and reveal multiple mechanisms wherein dysregulation of the ATG5 conjugation switch inhibits autophagy.
Project description:Autophagy is biological mechanism allowing recycling of long-lived proteins, abnormal protein aggregates, and damaged organelles under cellular stress conditions. Following sequestration in double- or multimembrane autophagic vesicles, the cargo is delivered to lysosomes for degradation. ATG5 is a key component of an E3-like ATG12-ATG5-ATG16 protein complex that catalyzes conjugation of the MAP1LC3 protein to lipids, thus controlling autophagic vesicle formation and expansion. Accumulating data indicate that ATG5 is a convergence point for autophagy regulation. Here, we describe the scaffold protein RACK1 (receptor activated C-kinase 1, GNB2L1) as a novel ATG5 interactor and an autophagy protein. Using several independent techniques, we showed that RACK1 interacted with ATG5. Importantly, classical autophagy inducers (starvation or mammalian target of rapamycin blockage) stimulated RACK1-ATG5 interaction. Knockdown of RACK1 or prevention of its binding to ATG5 using mutagenesis blocked autophagy activation. Therefore, the scaffold protein RACK1 is a new ATG5-interacting protein and an important and novel component of the autophagy pathways.