Protein degradation plays important roles in biological processes and is tightly regulated. Further, targeted proteolysis is an emerging research tool and therapeutic strategy. However, proteome-wide technologies to investigate the causes and consequences of protein degradation in biological systems are lacking. We developed "multiplexed proteome dynamics profiling" (mPDP), a mass-spectrometry-based approach combining dynamic-SILAC labeling with isobaric mass tagging for multiplexed analysis of ...[more]
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential evolutionarily conserved molecular chaperone in eukaryotes. Cancer cells rely on Hsp90 to chaperone activated oncoproteins, and its involvement in numerous signaling pathways makes it an attractive target for drug development. Surprisingly, however, the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors on cancer cells is most commonly cytostatic, and efforts to enhance the anti-tumor activity of Hsp90 inhibitors in the clinic remain a significant challenge. In this study, we show that dual inhibition of Wee1 tyrosine kinase and Hsp90 causes prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Gene-expression profiling revealed that induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by this drug combination coincided with transcriptional down-regulation of Survivin and Wee1, an outcome not seen in cells treated separately with either agent. At the translational level, expression of these two proteins as well as activated Akt was completely abrogated. Similar results were obtained in prostate cancer xenografts. These data establish a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors in prostate cancer, and they provide a mechanistic rationale for stimulating the pro-apoptotic activity of Hsp90 inhibitors. In order to explore the mechanism underlying the enhanced cell death caused by Wee1 inhibitorII and 17-AAG combination, we performed microarray analysis using PC3 cells treated with Wee1 inhibitorII alone, 17-AAG alone, or the two drugs in combination. There are 12 samples in total. There are three experimental replicate. Samples 1, 5 and 9 are control (C) (untreated PC3- prostate cancer cells). Samples 2, 6, and 10 are cells treated with Wee1 inhibitor II (W). Samples 3, 7, and 11 are treated with 17-AAG (A), (an Hsp90 inhibitor). Samples 4, 8, and 12 are treated with both Wee1 inhibitorII and 17-AAG (WA). Samples 5 was removed from our analysis due to weak signal.
Project description:Immunoaffinity enrichment of proteotypic peptides, coupled with selected reaction monitoring, enables indirect protein quantification. However the lack of suitable antibodies limits its widespread application. We developed a method in which multi-specific antibodies are used to enrich groups of peptides, thus facilitating multiplexed quantitative protein assays. We tested this strategy in a pharmacokinetic experiment by targeting a group of homologous drug transforming proteins in human hepatocytes. Our results indicate the generic applicability of this method to any biological system.
Project description:The intracellular localization and target of the napyradiomycin congeners CNQ525.510B and A80815C were explored using an immunoaffinity fluorescence (IAF) approach. Semi-synthetic methods were used to prepare probes from napyradiomycin CNQ525.510B and derivative A80815C. The results of confocal microscopy indicated that probes from both natural products localized predominantly within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. Parallel immunoaffinity precipitation efforts using a monoclonal antibody designed against the IAF tag, resulted in the isolation of an Hsp90 family member. This protein was identified as human Grp94 (hGrp94), by its specific mass spectral signature. This observation was validated by Western blot analyses and by the result of an in vitro Grp94 binding assay. The fact that the napyradiomycins CNQ525.510B and A80815C bind to hGrp94, and their associated probes localize within the ER, suggest the use of these materials as molecular probes for monitoring ER-based chaperone function.
Project description:Hsp90 is an essential chaperone that requires large allosteric changes to determine its ATPase activity and client binding. The co-chaperone Aha1, which is the major ATPase stimulator in eukaryotes, is important for regulation of Hsp90's allosteric timing. Little is known, however, about the structure of the Hsp90/Aha1 complex. Here, we characterize the solution structure of unmodified human Hsp90/Aha1 complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the 214-kDa complex forms by a two-step binding mechanism and adopts multiple conformations in the absence of nucleotide. Aha1 induces structural changes near Hsp90's nucleotide-binding site, providing a basis for its ATPase-enhancing activity. Our data reveal important aspects of this pivotal chaperone/co-chaperone interaction and emphasize the relevance of characterizing dynamic chaperone structures in solution.
Project description:Peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with targeted mass spectrometry is a quantitative approach for the robust and reproducible quantification of peptide analytes. The approach is capable of multiplexed quantification of peptides, including posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation. Anti-peptide antibodies are used to enrich analytes and heavy stable isotope-labeled standards. The enriched peptides are directly measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), a well-characterized quantitative mass spectrometry-based method. Quantification is performed by measuring the analyte (light) peptide response relative to the heavy standard, which is spiked at a known concentration. Here, we describe the methodology for multiplexed measurement of phosphorylated peptides on the ATM kinase and their nonmodified peptide analogs in cellular lysates. The method provides quantitative measurements of phospho-signaling and can be extended to a number of other phosphopeptides and sample types.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, Hsp90 chaperones assist late folding steps of many regulatory protein clients by a complex ATPase cycle. Binding of clients to Hsp90 requires prior interaction with Hsp70 and a transfer reaction that is mediated by the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop. Sti1 furthers client transfer by inhibiting Hsp90's ATPase activity. To better understand how Sti1 prepares Hsp90 for client acceptance, we characterized the interacting domains and analysed how Hsp90 and Sti1 mutually influence their conformational dynamics using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry. Sti1 stabilizes several regions in all three domains of Hsp90 and slows down dissociation of the Hsp90 dimer. Our data suggest that Sti1 inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity by preventing N-terminal dimerization and docking of the N-terminal domain with the middle domain. Using crosslinking and mass spectrometry we identified Sti1 segments, which are in close vicinity of the N-terminal domain of Hsp90. We found that the length of the linker between C-terminal dimerization domain and the C-terminal MEEVD motif is important for Sti1 association rates and propose a kinetic model for Sti1 binding to Hsp90.