KMT9 writes the histone mark H4K12me1 and controls metabolism and proliferation of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells
ABSTRACT: Posttranslational modifications of histones such as methylation regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Methylation of histone lysine residues is generally performed by SET domain methyltransferases. Here, we identify the heterodimeric C21orf127/TRMT112 complex as a specific histone methyltransferase. Assembly of the seven-b-strand protein C21orf127 (also named Hemk2, N6amt1 or PrmC) with TRMT112 is essential to form an active enzyme, hereafter named KMT9 that writes the histone mark H4K12me1 in vitro and in vivo. The H4K12me1 mark is enriched at promoters of KMT9 target genes and co-localises with the active histone mark H4K12ac. By controlling expression of genes involved in energy metabolism, KMT9 regulates oxidative phosphorylation in androgen receptor-dependent and -independent prostate tumour cells. Importantly, KMT9 depletion severely affects proliferation of castration and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells and xenograft tumours. Together, our data link the writing of the H4K12me1 histone mark by KMT9 with KMT9-dependent gene expression, which in consequence regulates energy metabolism and proliferation. KMT9 executes these functions independently of androgen receptor and androgen signalling thus, providing a promising paradigm for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:Upon androgen stimulation, PKN1-mediated histone H3 threonine 11 phosphorylation (H3T11P) promotes AR target genes activation. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we show that WDR5, a subunit of the SET1/MLL complex, interacts with H3T11P and this interaction facilitates the recruitment of the SET1/MLL complex and subsequent H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). Using ChIP-seq, we find that androgen stimulation results in a six-fold increase in the number of H3T11P-marked regions and induces WDR5 colocalization to one third of H3T11P-enriched promoters, thus establishing a genome-wide relationship between H3T11P and recruitment of WDR5. Accordingly, PKN1 knock-down or chemical inhibition severely blocks WDR5 association and H3K4me3 on AR target genes. Finally, WDR5 is critical in prostate cancer cell proliferation, and is hyperexpressed in human prostate cancers. Together, these results identify WDR5 as a critical epigenomic integrator of histone phosphorylation and methylation and a major driver of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell proliferation. Identification of Histone 3 threonine 11 phosphorylation (H3T11P) marks and WDR5 binding sites in LNCaP cells treated with R1881 ligand (androgen) or solvent control.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells play relevant roles in metastasis and drug resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). Conditioned-media from Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts from two patients with aggressive PCa induce EMT, reversible DNA methylation and transcriptional variations in androgen independent PC3, but not in androgen dependent LN-CaP cells. Focal CpG islands hyper-methylation associated to transcriptional repression of epithelial markers occurs together with widespread hypo-methylation, including promoters of EMT and stemness regulating genes resulting in their transcriptional activation. Remarkably, DNA methylation and transcription patterns are entirely reverted upon exposure to serum-free medium (mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition). DNMT3A is required for de novo methylation and silencing of CDH1 and GRHL2, the ZEB1 direct repressor, while its knock-down prevents EMT entry. These unprecedented results highlight that CAF-released factors induce reversible DNA methylation patterns required for transcriptional variations essential for EMT and stemness in androgen independent PCa cells, suggesting that similar plasticity might occur in tumour microenvironment. This submission contains data and metadata from the methylation profiling by array of PC-3 cells treated with conditioned media from Human prostate fibroblasts (HPFs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs).
Project description:Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a lethal disease. The cell type(s) that survive androgen-deprivation remain poorly described despite global efforts to understand the various mechanisms of therapy resistance. We recently identified in wild type mouse prostates a rare population of luminal progenitor cells that we called LSCmed according to their FACS profile (Lin?/Sca-1+/CD49fmed). Here we investigated the prevalence and castration resistance of LSCmed in various mouse models of prostate tumorigenesis. In intact mice, we show that LSCmed prevalence remains low (5-10% of epithelial cells) when prostatic androgen receptor signaling unaltered (malignant Hi-Myc mice) but significantly increases in models exhibiting reduced prostatic androgen receptor signaling, rising up to 30% in premalignant tumors (Pb-PRL mice) and to >80% in castration-resistant prostate tumors driven by Pten loss (Ptenpc-/- mice). LSCmed tolerance to androgen deprivation was demonstrated by their persistence (Ptenpc-/-) or further enrichment (Pb-PRL) 2-3 weeks after castration as evidenced by FACS analysis. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that LSCmed represent a unique cell entity as their gene-expression profile is different from luminal and basal/stem cells, but shares markers of each. Their intrinsic androgen signaling is markedly decreased, which explains why LSCmed tolerate androgen-deprivation. This also enlightens why Ptenpc-/- tumors are castration-resistant since LSCmed represent the most prevalent cell type in this model. We validated CK4 as a specific marker for LSCmed on sorted cells and prostate tissues by immunostaining, allowing for the detection of LSCmed in various mouse prostate specimens. In castrated Ptenpc-/- prostates, BrdU staining revealed massive proliferation of CK4+ cells, further demonstrating their key role in castration-resistant prostate cancer progression. In all, this study identifies LSCmed as a probable source of prostate cancer relapse after androgen deprivation and as a new therapeutic target for the prevention of castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:LSD1 (also known as KDM1A) is a histone demethylase and a key regulator of gene expression in embryonic stem cells and cancer.1,2 LSD1 was initially identified as a transcriptional repressor via its demethylation of active histone H3 marks (di-methyl lysine 4 [2MK4]).1 In prostate cancer, specifically, LSD1 also co-localizes with the AR and demethylates repressive 2MK9 histone marks from androgen-responsive AR target genes, facilitating androgen-mediated induction of AR-regulated gene expression and androgen-induced proliferation in androgen-dependent cancers.3,4 Recently, it was shown that treatment with high doses of androgens (e.g.10-fold higher doses than those required for induction of expression of androgen-activated genes such as PSA) recruits LSD1 and AR to an enhancer within the AR; this AR and LSD1 recruitment represses AR transcription.5 Thus, LSD1 appears to play a role in mediating both the proliferative and repressive phases of the biphasic androgen dose-response curve. For these reasons, we hypothesized that LSD1 might be important for maintenance of AR signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tumors. However, in this report, we describe a distinct role of LSD1 as a driver of proliferation and survival of prostate cancer cells, including CRPC cells, irrespective of androgens or even AR expression. Specifically, LSD1 activates expression of cell cycle, mitosis, and embryonic stem cell maintenance pathways that are enriched in lethal prostate cancers – pathways not activated by androgens. Finally, we observe that treatment with a new LSD1 inhibitor potently and specifically suppresses LSD1 function and suppresses CRPC growth and survival in vitro and in vivo. Our data place LSD1 as a key driver of androgen-independent survival in lethal prostate cancers and demonstrate the potential of LSD1-directed therapies in the near-term. The enclosed files are from microarrays experiments after suppressing LSD1 with RNAi or stimulating cells with the androgen agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Project description:We report a novel and important role for the TRIM24-dependent transcriptional program in promoting prostate cancer progression to a castration-resistant state. Overall design: Examination of TRIM24 binding in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we determine binding in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells stimulated for 4h with vehicle (ETOH) or 10nM DHT, and in castration-resistant LNCaP-abl cells grown under vehicle conditions.
Project description:Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and AR downstream signalings promote prostate cancer cell proliferation. To investigate the AR signaling, we performed RNA sequence analysis in AR positive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we used hormone-refractory prostate cancer model cells, Bicalutamide-resistant (BicR) to explore the differences of androgen signaling in prostate cancer progression. Overall design: Short RNA sequence analysis of androgen-regulated miRNAs in two prostate cancer cells
Project description:EZH2 is frequently over-expressed in aggressive and metastatic solid tumors, including castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We sought to determine EZH2-dependent gene expression programmes in prostate cancer progression, and found an intriguing functional switch of EZH2 from a repressor to an activator during CRPC development. We used microarrays to detail the global profiling of gene expression that are differentially regulated upon EZH2 depletion in two different prostate cancer cell lines. The androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and the LNCaP-derived androgen-independent cell line LNCaP-abl (abl) were used for this study, as their transcription profiles strongly resemble that of clinical androgen-dependent and castration resistant prostate tumors, respectively. EZH2 was silenced by specific siRNAs in both cell lines, and total RNA was extracted and hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:To identify molecular singnal alterations between androgen dependent prostate cancer and castration resistant prostate cancer, we performed interspecies comparative microarray analyses using RNAs prepared from uncastrasion and castration tumor from LNCAP Orhotopic xenograft models of prostate cancer. microarray data from uncastrasion and castration tumor revealed that the gene expression profile is most significantly altered in between androgen dependent prostate cancer and castration resistant prostate cancer. Comparative analyses of LNCAP Orhotopic xenograft models of prostate cancer showed that genes involved in androgen dependent and androgen independent tumor were significantly altered. We prepared RNA samples from 4 samples uncastrasion and 4 samples castration tumors from LNCAP Orhotopic xenograft models of prostate cancer . High-quality RNA samples were subjected to microarray analysis using the Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST platform, and only those results that passed examinations for quality assurance and quality control of the Human Gene 2.0 ST arrays were retrieved. In total, we obtained gene expression profiles from the following samples: 4 samples uncastrasion and 4 samples castration tumors
Project description:Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and AR downstream signalings promote prostate cancer cell proliferation. To investigate the AR signaling, we performed short RNA sequence analysis in AR positive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we used hormone-refractory prostate cancer model cells, Bicalutamide-resistant (BicR) to explore the differences of androgen signaling in prostate cancer progression. Short RNA sequence analysis of androgen-regulated miRNAs in two prostate cancer cells
Project description:Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and AR downstream signalings promote prostate cancer cell proliferation. To investigate the AR signaling, we performed RNA sequence analysis in AR positive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we used hormone-refractory prostate cancer model cells, Bicalutamide-resistant (BicR) to explore the differences of androgen signaling in prostate cancer progression. Short RNA sequence analysis of androgen-regulated miRNAs in two prostate cancer cells