High-density chemical cross-linking for modeling protein interactions
ABSTRACT: We combine several orthogonal cross-linking chemistries as well as improvements in search algorithms, statistical analysis and computational cost to achieve coverage of one unique cross-linked position pair for every 7 amino acids at a 1% false discovery rate. This is accomplished without any peptide-level fractionation, enrichment, or isotopic labeling. We apply our methods to model the complex between a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and its protein inhibitor, as well as the yeast proteasome
Project description:Detailed mechanistic understanding of protein complex function is greatly enhanced by insights from its 3-dimensional structure. Traditional methods of protein structure elucidation remain expensive and labor-intensive and require highly purified starting material. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry offers an alternative that has seen increased use, especially in combination with other experimental approaches like cryo-electron microscopy. Here we report advances in method development, combining several orthogonal cross-linking chemistries as well as improvements in search algorithms, statistical analysis, and computational cost to achieve coverage of 1 unique cross-linked position pair for every 7 amino acids at a 1% false discovery rate. This is accomplished without any peptide-level fractionation or enrichment. We apply our methods to model the complex between a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and its protein inhibitor, showing that the cross-links are self-consistent and define the interaction interface at high resolution. The resulting model suggests a scaffold for development of a class of protein-based inhibitors of the CA family of enzymes. We next cross-link the yeast proteasome, identifying 3,893 unique cross-linked peptides in 3 mass spectrometry runs. The dataset includes 1,704 unique cross-linked position pairs for the proteasome subunits, more than half of them intersubunit. Using multiple recently solved cryo-EM structures, we show that observed cross-links reflect the conformational dynamics and disorder of some proteasome subunits. We further demonstrate that this level of cross-linking density is sufficient to model the architecture of the 19-subunit regulatory particle de novo.
Project description:In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family. This study characterizes <i>Aedes aegypti</i> carbonic anhydrases using bioinformatic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods. Our analyses show that there are fourteen <i>Aedes aegypti</i> carbonic anhydrase genes, two of which are expressed as splice variants. The carbonic anhydrases were classified as either integral membrane, peripheral membrane, mitochondrial, secreted, or soluble cytoplasmic proteins. Using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, one of the carbonic anhydrases, <i>Aedes aegypti</i> carbonic anhydrase 9, was analyzed and found in each life stage, male/female pupae, male/female adults, and in the female posterior midgut. Next, carbonic anhydrase 9 was analyzed in larvae and adults using confocal microscopy and was detected in the midgut regions. According to our analyses, carbonic anhydrase 9 is a soluble cytoplasmic enzyme found in the alimentary canal of larvae and adults and is expressed throughout the life cycle of the mosquito. Based on previous physiological analyses of adults and larvae, it appears AeCA9 is one of the major carbonic anhydrases involved in producing bicarbonate/carbonate which is involved in pH regulation and ion transport processes in the alimentary canal. Detailed understanding of the molecular bases of ion homeostasis in mosquitoes will provide targets for novel mosquito control strategies into the new millennium.
Project description:Ascaris lumbricoides is the prevalent parasite causing ascariasis by infecting the human alimentary tract. This is common in the jejunum of small intestine. Therefore, it is of interest to describe the target protein ? Carbonic Anhydrase involved in Ascariasis. Carbonic anhydrase (CAs, the metallo enzymes) is encoded by six evolutionary divergent gene families ?, ?,?, ?, ?, and ?, which contain zinc ion in their catalytic active site. ?-CA is found in plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, protozoans, arthropods, and nematodes and completely absent in vertebrate genomes. The absence of ?-CA protein in vertebrate makes the enzyme an important target for inhibitory studies against helminthic infection. The sequence to function related information and 3D structure data for ?-CA of Ascaris lumbricoides is not available. Hence, we modeled the 3D structure (using PRIME) for the molecular dynamics and simulation studies (using the Desmond of Schrodinger software) and interaction analysis (using STRING database). The ?-CA protein found to be interacting with carbonic anhydrase protein family along with T27A3, alh13, mtp18, T22F3, gcy29 proteins. These results provide insights for the understanding of the functional and biological roles played by ? CA. Hence, this data is useful for the design of drugs for Ascariasis.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrase catalyses the interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons. It was unknown if the industrial-relevant acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum possesses these enzymes. We identified two putative carbonic anhydrase genes in its genome, one of the β class and one of the γ class. Carbonic anhydrase activity was found for the purified β class enzyme, but not the γ class candidate. Functional complementation of an Escherichia coli carbonic anhydrase knock-out mutant showed that the β class carbonic anhydrase could complement this activity, but not the γ class candidate gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the β class carbonic anhydrase of Clostridium autoethanogenum represents a novel sub-class of β class carbonic anhydrases that form the F-clade. The members of this clade have the shortest primary structure of any known carbonic anhydrase.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme of interest for many biotechnological developments including carbon sequestration. These applications often require harsh conditions, so there is a need for the development of thermostable variants. One of the most thermostable human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAIIts) variants was patented in 2006. Here, we report the ultra-high resolution crystal structure of HCAIIts. The structural changes seen are consistent with each of the six mutations involved acting largely independently and variously resulting in increased H-bonding, improved packing, and reduced side chain entropy loss on folding to yield the increased stability. We further suggest that for four of the mutations, improvements in backbone conformational energetics is also a contributor and that considerations of such conformational propensities of individual amino acids are often overlooked.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrase is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of CO2/HCO3-. Equilibrium of these species is maintained by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Recent advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy have allowed, for the first time, in vivo characterization of carbonic anhydrase in the human brain. In this article, we review the theories and techniques of in vivo 13C magnetization (saturation) transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy as they are applied to measuring the rate of exchange between CO2 and HCO3- catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. Inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase have a wide range of therapeutic applications. Role of carbonic anhydrases and their inhibitors in many diseases are also reviewed to illustrate future applications of in vivo carbonic anhydrase assessment by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Project description:We investigated the activity of carbonic anhydrase in blood-free perfused white skeletal muscles of the rabbit. Carbonic anhydrase activities were measured in supernatants and in Triton extracts of the particulate fractions of white-skeletal-muscle homogenate by using a rapid-reaction stopped-flow apparatus equipped with a pH electrode. An average carbonic anhydrase concentration of about 0.5 microM was determined for white skeletal muscle. This concentration is about 1% of that inside the erythrocyte. Some 85% of the muscle enzyme was found in the homogenate supernatant, and only 15% appeared to be associated with membranes and organelles. White-skeletal-muscle carbonic anhydrase was characterized in terms of its Michaelis constant and catalytic-centre activity (turnover number) for CO2 and its inhibition constant towards ethoxzolamide. These properties were identical with those of the rabbit erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase C, suggesting that a type-C enzyme is present in white skeletal muscle. Affinity chromatography of muscle supernatant and of lysed erythrocytes showed that, whereas rabbit erythrocytes contain about equal amounts of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes B and C, the B isoenzyme is practically absent from white skeletal muscle. Similarly, ethoxzolamide-inhibition curves suggested that white skeletal muscle contains no carbonic anhydrase A. It is concluded that white skeletal muscle contains essentially one carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme, the C form, most of which is probably of cytosolic origin.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma and cancers. Carbonic anhydrases perform a crucial role in the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and protons. However, there is little information about carbonic anhydrase isoforms during the process of ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicit in ageing brain and muscle. We have interrogated isolated mitochondrial fractions from young adult and middle aged mouse brain and skeletal muscle. We find an increase of tissue specific carbonic anhydrases in mitochondria from middle-aged brain and skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II was measured in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd5J) mouse model. In pcd5J we find mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II is also elevated in brain from young adults undergoing a process of neurodegeneration. We show C.elegans exposed to carbonic anhydrase II have a dose related shorter lifespan suggesting that high CAII levels are in themselves life limiting. We show for the first time that the mitochondrial content of brain and skeletal tissue are exposed to significantly higher levels of active carbonic anhydrases as early as in middle-age. Carbonic anhydrases associated with mitochondria could be targeted to specifically modulate age related impairments and disease.
Project description:The carbonic anhydrase activity of human platelets was investigated by measuring the kinetics of CO2 hydration in supernatants of platelet lysates by using a pH stopped-flow apparatus. An average carbonic anhydrase concentration of 2.1 microM was determined for pellets of human platelets. Analysis of the kinetic properties of this carbonic anhydrase yielded a Km value of 1.0 mM, a catalytic-centre activity kcat. of 130000 s-1 and an inhibition constant Ki towards ethoxzolamide of 0.3 nM. From these values, CO2 hydration inside platelets is estimated to be accelerated by a factor of 2500. When platelet lysates were subjected to affinity chromatography, only the high-activity carbonic anhydrase II could be eluted from the affinity column, whereas the carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme I, which is known to occur in high concentrations in human erythrocytes, appeared to be absent.
Project description:Procedures for isolating carbonic anhydrase (EC 18.104.22.168) enzymes from the erythrocytes and the mucosae of the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pigs are described. From a haemolysate, haemoglobin was removed by the addition of ammonium sulphate, and also by two other methods, namely by gel filtration or by adsorption on DEAE-Sephadex. The crude enzyme thus obtained was resolved into the different isoenzymes by chromatography with DEAE-cellulose. From particle-free supernatants of homogenates of some gastrointestinal tissues, carbonic anhydrases were purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE-cellulose. The major isoenzymes from blood, stomach, proximal colonic mucosa and caecal mucosa were homogeneous during ion-exchange chromatography, acrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and centrifugal examination. From these tissues, carbonic anhydrase was isolated as two major isoenzymes. They resemble the pairs of isoenzymes discovered in the bloods of other species. The carbon dioxide hydratase activity of one isoenzyme (;high activity' carbonic anhydrase) was 40 times that of the other isoenzyme (;low activity' carbonic anhydrase), as measured at a single substrate concentration. Two other minor components of the enzyme are also found in guinea-pig erythrocytes. All of the enzymes isolated had molecular weights of nearly 30000 (sedimentation equilibrium). ;High activity' carbonic anhydrases from blood and gastrointestinal tissues were indistinguishable according to some chemical, physical and kinetic measurements; similarly ;low activity' carbonic anhydrases from those tissues were indistinguishable. ;High activity' carbonic anhydrase was markedly different from the ;low activity' carbonic anhydrase with respect to its amino acid composition, chromatographic behaviour and isoelectric pH value. Marked differences were also found in the tissue concentrations of the major isoenzymes. It is suggested that the characteristic and selective distribution of the different forms of carbonic anhydrase in the guinea-pig tissues is related to the specific and different physiological functions of the enzymes.