Cxorf67-FLAG co-immunoprecipitation analysis from 293T cells
ABSTRACT: The regulation of gene expression is controlled in part by post-translational modifications to histone proteins. Methylation at histone H3, lysine 27 (H3K27), which is catalyzed by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is associated with silenced chromatin. Previous studies have identified dysregulation of H3K27 methylation in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), the majority of which feature mutation of lysine 27 to methionine. This “oncohistone” potently inhibits PRC2 activity and leads to a global reduction in H3K27 methylation. Similar to DIPG, posterior fossa type A (PFA) ependymomas also show low levels of H3K27 methylation. Although PFAs do not possess the H3K27M oncohistone mutation, they do show increased expression of Cxorf67. Interestingly, Cxorf67 contains a C-terminal sequence that resembles the sequence surrounding H3K27, and we find that this portion of Cxorf67 inhibits PRC2 activity to an even greater extent than the H3K27M oncohistone. Thus, we suggest re-naming Cxorf67 as EZHIP (Enhancer of Zeste Homologs Inhibitory Protein). Furthermore, when expressed in 293T cells, Cxorf67 interacts with several members of PRC2 and induces changes in H3K27 methylation patterns that mirror the changes in H3K27 methylation induced by expression of H3K27M. We propose that PFAs have dysregulated H3K27 methylation by a mechanism that involves inhibition of PRC2 by Cxorf67, which could drive tumorigenesis.
Project description:The project aimed at determining whether the Polycomb complex PRC2 has a unique composition in androgen independent prostate cancer cells and the project aimed at determining whether EZH2, the enzymatic subunit of PRC2, retains any functional role in the context of Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) where either EED or SUZ12, two essential subunits of PRC2 are inactivated.
Project description:In eukaryotes, epigenetic post-translational modification of histones is critical for regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. EZH2 is the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and is responsible for repressing target gene expression through methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27). Over-expression of EZH2 is implicated in tumorigenesis and correlates with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. Recent reports have identified somatic heterozygous mutations of Y641 and A677 residues within the catalytic SET domain of EZH2 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). The Y641 residue is the most frequently mutated residue, with 22% of GCB (Germinal centre B-cell) DLBCL and FL harboring mutations at this site. These lymphomas exhibit increased H3K27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) due to altered substrate preferences of the mutant enzymes. However, it is unknown whether direct inhibition of EZH2 methyltransferase activity alone will be effective in treating lymphomas carrying activating EZH2 mutations. Herein, we demonstrate that GSK126, a potent, highly-selective, SAM-competitive, small molecule inhibitor of EZH2 methyltransferase activity, decreases global H3K27me3 levels and reactivates silenced PRC2 target genes. GSK126 effectively inhibits the proliferation of EZH2 mutant DLBCL cell lines and dramatically inhibits the growth of EZH2 mutant DLBCL xenografts in mice. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 activity may provide a promising treatment for EZH2 mutant lymphoma. We performed a ChIP-seq experiment to understand the genomewide pattern of H3K27me3 enrichment in DLBCL cell lines that were differentially sensitive to GSK126. H3K27me3 bound chromatin and input controls was immunoprecipitated and subjected to sequencing on the Illumina GA Iix. In total, 3 cell lines were profiled - 3 EZH2 mutant (Pfeiffer, KARPAS-422, WSU-DLCL2).
Project description:Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2) is a multi-protein epigenetic regulator complex that plays critical roles in early development and tissue differentiation. The complex catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27). The tri-methyl state (H3K27me3) is well studied as an agent of gene repression, but more recently distinct roles for the mono- and di-methyl states have been discovered. In order to more fully understand how PRC2-associated factors might influence H3K27 status, we screened for physical associations of PRC2 subunits. Knockdown of these factors was used to produce functional interaction maps focused on H3K27 methylation, including proteins that have positive and negative effects on the levels each histone mark.
Project description:During development, transcriptional and chromatin modification changes co-occur but the order and causality of events often remain unclear. We explore the interrelationship of these processes using the paradigm of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). We initiate XCI in female, mouse embryonic stem cells by inducing Xist expression and monitor changes in transcription and chromatin by allele-specific TT-seq and ChIP-seq respectively. An unprecedented temporal resolution enabled identification of the earliest chromatin alterations during XCI. We demonstrate that HDAC3 interacts with both NCOR1 and NCOR2 and is pre-bound on the X chromosome where it deacetylates histones to promote efficient gene silencing. We also reveal the choreography of polycomb accumulation following Xist RNA coating, with PRC1-associated H2AK119Ub preceding PRC2-associated H3K27me3. Furthermore, polycomb-associated marks accumulate initially at large, intergenic domains and then spreads into genes but only in the context of gene silencing. Our results provide the hierarchy of chromatin events during XCI and demonstrate that some chromatin changes play key roles in mediating transcriptional silencing.
Project description:While the core subunits of Polycomb group (PcG) complexes are well characterized, little is known about the dynamics of these protein complexes during cellular differentiation. We used quantitative interaction proteomics to study PcG proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We found the stoichiometry of PRC1 and PRC2 to be highly dynamic during neural differentiation.
Project description:The project aimed at identifying the cofactors regulating Polycomb complex PRC2 enzymatic activity in gonads. We used a knock-in mouse model where the enzymatic subunit of PRC2 (either EZH2 or EZH1) is tagged (Flag-tag) to purify PRC2 from mouse adult testis. This experiment revealed the existence of a new cofactor for PRC2 that we called GPIF (AU022751).
Project description:The PAF complex (Paf1C) has been shown to regulate chromatin modifications, gene transcription, and PolII elongation. Here, we provide the first genome-wide analysis of chromatin occupancy by the entire PAF complex in mammalian cells. We show that Paf1C is recruited not only to promoters and gene bodies, but also to regions downstream of cleavage/polyadenylation (pA) sites at 3’ ends, a profile that sharply contrasted with the yeast complex. Remarkably, our studies identified novel, subunit-specific links between Paf1C and regulation of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) and upstream antisense transcription. Moreover, we found that depletion of Paf1C subunits also resulted in the accumulation of RNA polymerase II (PolII) over gene bodies, which coincided with APA. Depletion of specific Paf1C subunits leads to global loss of histone H2B ubiquitylation, but surprisingly, there is little impact of Paf1C depletion on other histone modifications, including the tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysines 4 and 36 (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3), previously associated with this complex. Our results provide surprising differences with yeast, while unifying observations that link Paf1C with PolII elongation and RNA processing, and suggest that Paf1C could play a role in protecting transcripts from premature cleavage by preventing PolII accumulation at TSS-proximal pA sites. ChIP-seq, RNA-seq and 3'READS of Paf1C factors in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells
Project description:In this experiment we sought to identify region with differential PRC2, JARID2, and H3K27me3 occupancy in human induced pluripotent stem cell lines with silenced or expressed MEG3 locus to indirectly determine the effect of this ncRNA on PRC2 function. 8 hIPSC lines, 5 MEG3+ and 3 MEG3-; ChIP-seq for EZH2, JARID2, and H3K27me3. Some done in replicates.
Project description:Jarid2 was recently identified as an important component of the mammalian Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), where it has a major effect on PRC2 recruitment in mouse embryonic stem cells. Although Jarid2 is conserved in Drosophila, it has not previously been implicated in Polycomb (Pc) regulation. Therefore, we purified Drosophila Jarid2 and its associated proteins and find that Jarid2 associates with all of the known canonical PRC2 components, demonstrating a conserved physical interaction with PRC2 in flies and mammals. Furthermore, in vivo studies with Jarid2 mutants in flies demonstrate that among several histone modifications tested, only H3K27 methylation, the mark implemented by PRC2, was affected. Genome-wide profiling of Jarid2, Su(z)12 and H3K27me3 occupancy by ChIP-seq indicates that Jarid2 and Su(z)12 have a very similar distribution pattern on chromatin. However, Jarid2 and Su(z)12 occupancy levels at some genes are significantly different with Jarid2 being present at relatively low levels at many Pc response elements (PREs) of certain Homeobox (Hox) genes, providing a rationale for why Jarid2 was never identified in Pc screens. Gene expression analyses show that Jarid2 and E(z) (a canonical PRC2 component) are required not only for transcriptional repression but might also function in active transcription. Identification of Jarid2 as a conserved PRC2 interactor in flies provides an opportunity to begin to probe some of its novel functions in Drosophila development. Examination of Jarid2, Su(z)12, and H3K27me3 profiles in fly larvae and Su(z)12 in eye imaginal discs under wild-type and Jarid2 mutant conditions.