Quantitative phosphoproteome of contracting C2 myotubes with pharmacological intervention of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR-S6K and RAF-MEK-ERK-RSK cascades
ABSTRACT: Various protein kinases are regulating the intracellular signaling network of skeletal muscle cells. Despite that many of the involved kinases are known, their downstream targets have remained largely unexplored. To deepen our understanding of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR-S6K and the RAF-MEK-ERK-RSK signaling network in myotubes, we globally analyzed changes in protein phosphorylation levels upon kinase inhibition within these pathways. The phosphoproteomics data were used to define potential targets of the kinases AKT, RSK and S6K, which share the substrate recognition motif RxRxxp[ST].
Project description:The signaling network of skeletal muscle cells is controlled by a variety of protein kinases. Although many kinases are known players, their downstream targets are still largely unexplored. To gain further knowledge about the PI3K-AKT-mTOR-S6K and the RAF-MEK-ERK-RSK signaling networks in myotubes, we analyzed changes in protein phosphorylation levels upon pathway activation and direct kinase inhibition on a global scale. Based on the phosphoproteomics data, we further examined target relationships of the basophilic kinases AKT, RSK and S6K, which share the substrate recognition motif RxRxxp[ST].
Project description:Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase l (PDK1) phosphorylates and activates multiple AGC serine kinases, including protein kinase B (PKB), p70Ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and p90Ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). PDK1 is required for thymocyte differentiation and proliferation, and herein, we explore the molecular basis for these essential functions of PDK1 in T lymphocyte development. A key finding is that PDK1 is required for the expression of key nutrient receptors in T cell progenitors: CD71 the transferrin receptor and CD98 a subunit of L-amino acid transporters. PDK1 is also essential for Notch-mediated trophic and proliferative responses in thymocytes. A PDK1 mutant PDK1 L155E, which supports activation of PKB but no other AGC kinases, can restore CD71 and CD98 expression in pre-T cells and restore thymocyte differentiation. However, PDK1 L155E is insufficient for thymocyte proliferation. The role of PDK1 in thymus development thus extends beyond its ability to regulate PKB. In addition, PDK1 phosphorylation of AGC kinases such as S6K and RSK is also necessary for thymocyte development.
Project description:Mad1, a member of the Myc/Max/Mad family, suppresses Myc-mediated transcriptional activity by competing with Myc for heterodimerization with its obligatory partner, Max. The expression of Mad1 suppresses Myc-mediated cell proliferation and transformation. The levels of Mad1 protein are generally low in many human cancers, and Mad1 protein has a very short half-life. However, the mechanism that regulates the turnover of Mad1 protein is poorly understood. In this study, we showed that Mad1 is a substrate of p90 ribosomal kinase (RSK) and p70 S6 kinase (S6K). Both RSK and S6K phosphorylate serine 145 of Mad1 upon serum or insulin stimulation. Ser-145 phosphorylation of Mad1 accelerates the ubiquitination and degradation of Mad1 through the 26S proteasome pathway, which in turn promotes the transcriptional activity of Myc. Our study provides a direct link between the growth factor signaling pathways regulated by PI3 kinase/Akt and MAP kinases with Myc-mediated transcription.
Project description:The growth factor/insulin-stimulated AGC kinases share an activation mechanism based on three phosphorylation sites. Of these, only the role of the activation loop phosphate in the kinase domain and the hydrophobic motif (HM) phosphate in a C-terminal tail region are well characterized. We investigated the role of the third, so-called turn motif phosphate, also located in the tail, in the AGC kinases PKB, S6K, RSK, MSK, PRK and PKC. We report cooperative action of the HM phosphate and the turn motif phosphate, because it binds a phosphoSer/Thr-binding site above the glycine-rich loop within the kinase domain, promoting zipper-like association of the tail with the kinase domain, serving to stabilize the HM in its kinase-activating binding site. We present a molecular model for allosteric activation of AGC kinases by the turn motif phosphate via HM-mediated stabilization of the alphaC helix. In S6K and MSK, the turn motif phosphate thereby also protects the HM from dephosphorylation. Our results suggest that the mechanism described is a key feature in activation of upto 26 human AGC kinases.
Project description:Hormones and growth factors induce the activation of a number of protein kinases that belong to the AGC subfamily, including isoforms of PKA, protein kinase B (also known as Akt), PKC, S6K p70 (ribosomal S6 kinase), RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) and MSK (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase), which then mediate many of the physiological processes that are regulated by these extracellular agonists. It can be difficult to assess the individual functions of each AGC kinase because their substrate specificities are similar. Here we describe the small molecule BI-D1870, which inhibits RSK1, RSK2, RSK3 and RSK4 in vitro with an IC(50) of 10-30 nM, but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher concentrations. BI-D1870 is cell permeant and prevents the RSK-mediated phorbol ester- and EGF (epidermal growth factor)-induced phosphoryl-ation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and LKB1 in human embry-onic kidney 293 cells and Rat-2 cells. In contrast, BI-D1870 does not affect the agonist-triggered phosphorylation of substrates for six other AGC kinases. Moreover, BI-D1870 does not suppress the phorbol ester- or EGF-induced phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein), consistent with the genetic evidence indicating that MSK, and not RSK, isoforms mediate the mitogen-induced phosphorylation of this transcription factor.
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is a potent inhibitor of experimental mammary carcinogenesis and may be an effective, safe chemopreventive agent for use in humans. SFN acts in part on the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway to regulate a battery of cytoprotective genes. In this study transcriptomic and proteomic changes in the estrogen receptor negative, non tumorigenic human breast epithelial MCF10A cell line were analyzed following SFN treatment or KEAP1 knockdown with siRNA using microarray and stable isotopic labeling with amino acids in culture (SILAC), respectively. Changes in selected transcripts and proteins were confirmed by PCR and Western blot in MCF10A and MCF12A cells. There was strong correlation between the transcriptomic and proteomic responses in both the SFN treatment (R=0.679, P<0.05) and KEAP1 knockdown (R=0.853, P<0.05) experiments. Common pathways for SFN treatment and KEAP1 knockdown were xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidants, glutathione metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and NADH/NADPH regeneration. Moreover, these pathways were most prominent in both the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The aldo-keto reductase family members, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, as well as NQO1 and ALDH3A1, were highly upregulated at both the transcriptomic and proteomic level. Collectively, these studies served to identify potential biomarkers that can be used in clinical trials to investigate the initial pharmacodynamic action of SFN in the breast. MCF10A cells were treated with SFN or had KEAP1 knocked down by siRNA.
Project description:Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in cellular signaling by phosphorylating members of the AGC family of kinases. This family includes protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase B (PKB), p70/p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK and S6K), and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Although PDK1 phosphorylates and activates PKC, PKB, and RSK in vivo, PDK1 regulation of PKA remains controversial. We isolated ksg1, the fission yeast ortholog of mammalian PDK1, as a suppressor of growth defects caused by loss of the stress-activated MAP kinase, Spc1. Here, we demonstrate that Ksg1 is required for activation of PKA. Cells containing the ksg1.12 thermolabile allele exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes, including the failure to arrest in G(1) and an inability to conjugate. The ksg1.12 allele strongly suppresses defects associated with unregulated PKA. Pka1, the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, is phosphorylated in vivo at Thr-356, which is located in the activation loop of the kinase and corresponds to Thr-197 in mammalian PKA. Phosphorylation of Thr-356 is required for in vivo activation of Pka1 and is dependent upon Ksg1. These data provide experimental evidence that PKA is a physiological substrate for PDK1.
Project description:Comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type grown in CDM+10 mM arginine compared to D39 wild type grown in CDM + 0.05 mM arginine to define the genome-wide transcriptional response to arginine. Details described in Kloosterman TG and Kuipers OP. ArgR1 and AhrC Mediate Arginine-Dependent Regulation of Arginine Acquisition- and Virulence Genes in the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. JBC 2011 Two condition design comparison of wild type strain
Project description:Chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a large multisubunit complex that mediates protein folding in eukaryotic cells. CCT participates in the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides, including actin, tubulin, and several cell cycle regulators; therefore, CCT plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization and cell division. Here we identify the chaperonin CCT as a novel physiological substrate for p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K). RSK phosphorylates the beta subunit of CCT in response to tumor promoters or growth factors that activate the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. CCTbeta Ser-260 was identified as the RSK site by mass spectrometry and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. RSK-dependent Ser-260 phosphorylation was sensitive to the MEK inhibitor UO126 and the RSK inhibitor BID-1870. Insulin weakly activates RSK but strongly activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and utilizes S6K to regulate CCTbeta phosphorylation. Thus, the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR pathways converge on CCTbeta Ser-260 phosphorylation in response to multiple agonists in various mammalian cells. We also show that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous CCTbeta causes impaired cell proliferation that can be rescued with ectopically expressed murine CCTbeta wild-type or phosphomimetic mutant S260D, but not the phosphorylation-deficient mutant S260A. Although the molecular mechanism of CCTbeta regulation remains unclear, our findings demonstrate a link between oncogene and growth factor signaling and chaperonin CCT-mediated cellular activities.
Project description:The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and provide a practical framework on which experimental evidence can be compared between species. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses on the components of the TOR pathway and determined their point of invention. We find that the two TOR complexes and a large part of the TOR pathway originated before the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor and form a core to which new inputs have been added during animal evolution. In addition, we provide insight into how duplications and sub-functionalization of the S6K, RSK, SGK and PKB kinases shaped the complexity of the TOR pathway. In yeast we identify novel AGC kinases that are orthologous to the S6 kinase. These results demonstrate how a vital signaling pathway can be both highly conserved and flexible in eukaryotes.