Project description:GRB7 gene encodes a multi-domain signal transduction molecule and is part of the core of the HER-2 amplicon. GRB7 is commonly co-amplified and overexpressed with HER-2 in human breast cancer. This study addresses the role of GRB7 in HER-2 positive human breast cancers resistant to HER-2 targeted therapy. HCC1954, 21MT1, and JIMT1 are basal like HER-2 positive breast cancer cell lines based on expression profiling. These three cell lines are resistant to trastuzumab and lapatinib treatment. Knockdown of GRB7 protein expression with siRNA transfection as well as lentiviral vector mediated shRNA over-expression decreased the growth of HCC1954, 21MT1, and JIMT1 cells in vitro and the growth of tumor xenografts these cells formed in animal models. When assayed by ki-67 staining and TUNEL assay, the mechanism of reduced tumor xenograft growth appeared to be distinct. Reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis were seen in 21MT1 cells, while reduced proliferation was seen in HCC1954 cells and increased apoptosis in JIMT1 cells. Phospho-proteome profiling found HER-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was reduced with GRB7 knock down in JIMT1 cells. Immuno-blotting and immuno-precipitation experiments found HER-1 phosphorylation was reduced with GRB7 knock down in all three cell lines. HER-1 knock down via siRNA transient transfection as well as blocking HER-1 function with panitumumab decreased proliferation of all three cell lines in vitro. Our study finds that GRB7 has an essential growth promoting function which is mediated in part by HER-1 activation. The potential of HER-1 targeting in therapy resistant HER-2 positive breast cancer merits further study.
Project description:Metastasis is the primary cause of prostate cancer (CaP)-related death. We investigate the molecular, pathologic and clinical outcome associations of EphA6 expression and CaP metastasis. The expression profiling of Eph receptors (Ephs) and their ephrin ligands was performed in parental and metastatic CaP cell lines. Among Ephs and ephrins, only EphA6 is consistently overexpressed in metastatic CaP cells. Metastatic potential of EphA6 is assessed by RNAi in a CaP spontaneous metastasis mouse model. EphA6 knock-down in human PC-3M cells causes decreased invasion in vitro and reduced lung and lymph node metastasis in vivo. In addition, knock-down of EphA6 decreases tube formation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. EphA6 mRNA expression is higher in 112 CaP tumor samples compared with benign tissues from 58 benign prostate hyperplasia patients. Positive correlation was identified between EphA6 expression and vascular invasion, neural invasion, PSA level, and TNM staging in CaP cases. Further, genome-wide gene expression analysis in EphA6 knock-down cells identified a panel of differentially regulated genes including PIK3IPA, AKT1, and EIF5A2, which could contribute to EphA6-regulated cancer progression. These findings identify EphA6 as a potentially novel metastasis gene which positively correlates with CaP progression. EphA6 may be a therapeutic target in metastatic CaP.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Previously, we have found that cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11) signaling was essential for osteosarcoma cell growth and survival. Subsequently, CDK11 siRNA gene targeting, expression profiling, and network reconstruction of differentially expressed genes were performed between CDK11 knock down and wild type osteosarcoma cells. Reconstructed network of the differentially expressed genes pointed to the AR as key to CDK11 signaling in osteosarcoma. CDK11 increased transcriptional activation of AR gene in osteosarcoma cell lines. AR protein was highly expressed in various osteosarcoma cell lines and patient tumor tissues. Tissue microarray analysis showed that the disease-free survival rate for patients with high-expression of AR was significantly shorter than for patients with low-expression of AR. In addition, AR gene expression knockdown via siRNA greatly inhibited cell growth and viability. Similar results were found in osteosarcoma cells treated with AR inhibitor. These findings suggest that CDK11 is involved in the regulation of AR pathway and AR can be a potential novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment.
Project description:The inhibitor-?B kinase-nuclear factor-?B (IKK-NF-?B) and epidermal growth factor receptor-activator protein-1 (EGFR-AP1) pathways are often co-activated and promote malignant behavior, but the underlying basis for this relationship is unclear. Resistance to inhibitors of IKK? or EGFR is observed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Here, we reveal that both IKK? and ? contribute to nuclear activation of canonical and alternate NF-?B/REL family transcription factors, and overexpression of signal components that enhance co-activation of the EGFR-AP1 pathway. We observed that IKK? and IKK? exhibit increased protein expression, nuclear localization, and phosphorylation in HNSCC tissues and cell lines. Individually, IKK activity varied among different cell lines, but overexpression of both IKKs induced the strongest NF-?B activation. Conversely, siRNA knock down of both IKKs significantly decreased nuclear localization and phosphorylation of canonical RELA and I?B? and alternative p52 and RELB subunits. Knock down of both IKKs more effectively inhibited NF-?B activation, broadly modulated gene expression and suppressed cell proliferation and migration. Global expression profiling revealed that NF-?B, cytokine, inflammatory response and growth factor signaling are among the top pathways and networks regulated by IKKs. Importantly, IKK? and IKK? together promoted the expression and activity of transforming growth factor ?, EGFR and AP1 transcription factors cJun, JunB and Fra1. Knock down of AP1 subunits individually decreased 8/15 (53%) of IKK-targeted genes sampled and similarly inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Mutations of NF-?B and AP1-binding sites abolished or decreased IKK-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) promoter activity. Compounds such as wedelactone with dual IKK inhibitory activity and geldanomycins that block IKK?/? and EGFR pathways were more active than IKK?-specific inhibitors in suppressing NF-?B activation and proliferation and inducing cell death. We conclude that IKK? and IKK? cooperatively activate NF-?B and EGFR/AP1 networks of signaling pathways and contribute to the malignant phenotype and the intrinsic or acquired therapeutic resistance of HNSCC.
Project description:OASIS is a transcription factor similar to ATF6 that is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study we investigated the expression of OASIS in human glioma cell lines and the effect of OASIS knock-down on the ER stress response and cell migration. OASIS mRNA was detected in three distinct glioma cell lines (U373, A172 and U87) and expression levels were increased upon treatment with ER stress-inducing compounds in the U373 and U87 lines. OASIS protein, which is glycosylated on Asn-513, was detected in the U373 and U87 glioma lines at low levels in control cells and protein expression was induced by ER stress. Knock-down of OASIS in human glioma cell lines resulted in an attenuated unfolded protein response to ER stress (reduced GRP78/BiP and GRP94 induction) and decreased expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan extracellular matrix proteins, but induction of the collagen gene Col1a1 was unaffected. Cells in which OASIS was knocked-down exhibited altered cell morphology and reduced cell migration. These results suggest that OASIS is important for the ER stress response and maintenance of some extracellular matrix proteins in human glioma cells.
Project description:Background: Large-scale genomic analyses of patient cohorts have revealed extensive heterogeneity between individual tumors, contributing to treatment failure and drug resistance. In malignant melanoma, heterogeneity is thought to arise as a consequence of the differentiation of melanoma-initiating cells that are defined by cell-surface markers like CD271 or CD133. Results: Here we identified the nerve growth factor receptor (CD271) as a crucial determinant of melanoma cell tumorigenicity, stem-like properties, heterogeneity and plasticity. Stable shRNA mediated knock-down of CD271 in patient-derived melanoma cells abrogated their tumor-initiating and colony-forming capacity. A genome-wide expression profiling and gene-set enrichment analysis revealed novel connections of CD271 with melanoma-associated genes like CD133 and points to a neural crest stem cell (NCSC) signature lost upon CD271 knock-down. In a meta-analysis, we found CD271 linked to the neural crest specifier SOX10 and observed a shared set of 271 differentially regulated genes. To dissect the connection of CD271 and CD133 we analyzed 10 patient-derived melanoma-cell lines for cell-surface expression of both markers compared to established cell lines MeWo and A375. We found CD271+ cells in the majority of cell lines analyzed as well as in a set of 16 different patient-derived melanoma metastases. Strikingly, only 2/12 cell lines harbored a CD133+ sub-set that in addition comprised a fraction of cells of a CD271+/CD133+ phenotype. Those cells were found in the label-retaining fraction and in vitro deduced from CD271+ but not CD271 knock-down cells. Conclusions: Our present study provides a deeper insight into the regulation of melanoma cell properties and points CD271 out as a regulator of several melanoma-associated genes. Further, our data strongly suggest CD271 is a crucial determinant of stem-like properties of melanoma cells like colony-formation and tumorigenicity. For knock-down of CD271 (NGFR), melanoma cells were transfected with 2 M-BM-5g of each shRNA plasmid; #2: 5M-bM-^@M-^Y-ACAACCTCATCCCTGTCTATT-3M-bM-^@M-^Y; #3: 5M-bM-^@M-^Y-CCCGAGCACATAGA CTCCTTT-3M-bM-^@M-^Y and #4: 5M-bM-^@M-^Y-CCGAGCACATAGACTCCTTTA-3M-bM-^@M-^Y or control shRNA (shCtl 5M-bM-^@M-^Y-GGAATCTCATTCGATGCATAC-3M-bM-^@M-^Y; all from Quiagen) using Lipofectamine2000 (Invitrogen). Cells were selected with puromycin (10M-BM-5g/ ml) over a period of two weeks. Whole genome expression profiling of CD271k.d. cells (shRNA#4) and shCtl. cells was performed with three biological replicates. Illumina raw data of BeadChip HumanHT-12V4 platform were summarized via the BeadStudio without normalization and background correction. Follow-up processing was done via the R/Bioconductor environment employing packages lumi, limma and q-value. Data were normalized with quantile normalization. Genes were termed significantly differentially expressed when the average detection p-value of at least one case was < 0.05 the ratio was outside the interval [0.75,1.33], one of the p-values from limma test, Student's t-test, Welch test and Wilcoxon test was < 0.05. At least one of the q-values corresponding to one of these tests < 0.05.
Project description:Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which can be further subdivided into two distinct entities (ALK(+) and ALK(-)) based on the presence or absence of ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways triggered by ALK signaling, constitutive activation of STAT3 is strictly required for ALK-mediated transformation and survival. Here we performed genome-wide microRNA profiling and identified 48 microRNA concordantly modulated by the inducible knock-down of ALK and STAT3. To evaluate the functional role of differentially expressed miRNA, we forced their expression in ALK(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and monitored their influence after STAT3 depletion. We found that the expression of the microRNA-17~92 cluster partially rescues STAT3 knock-down by sustaining proliferation and survival of ALK(+) cells. Experiments in a xenograft mouse model indicated that forced expression of microRNA-17~92 interferes with STAT3 knock-down in vivo. High expression levels of the microRNA-17~92 cluster resulted in down-regulation of BIM and TGF?RII proteins, suggesting that their targeting might mediate resistance to STAT3 knock-down in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. We speculate that the microRNA-17~92 cluster is involved in lymphomagenesis of STAT3(+) ALCL and that its inhibition might represent an alternative avenue to interfere with ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
Project description:The study of the function of many human proteins is often hampered by technical limitations, such as cytotoxicity and phenotypes that result from overexpression of the protein of interest together with the endogenous version. Here we present the snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene ExpressioN) vector technology for generating stable cell lines where expression of the endogenous protein can be reduced and replaced by an exogenous protein, such as a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version. SnoMEN are snoRNAs engineered to contain complementary sequences that can promote knock-down of targeted RNAs. We have established and characterised two such partial protein replacement human cell lines (snoMEN-PR). Quantitative mass spectrometry was used to analyse the specificity of knock-down and replacement at the protein level and also showed an increased pull-down efficiency of protein complexes containing exogenous, tagged proteins in the protein replacement cell lines, as compared with conventional co-expression strategies. The snoMEN approach facilitates the study of mammalian proteins, particularly those that have so far been difficult to investigate by exogenous expression and has wide applications in basic and applied gene-expression research.
Project description:The ADTRP gene encodes the androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein and is a susceptibility gene for contrary artery disease (CAD). We performed global gene expression profiling for ADTRP knock-down using microarrays in human HepG2 cells. Follow-up real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ADTRP knock-down regulates a diverse set of genes, including upregulation of seven histone genes, downregulation of multiple cell cycle genes (CCND1, CDK4, and CDKN1A), and upregulation of apoptosis genes (CASP7 and PDCD2) in HepG2 cells and endothelial cells. Consistently, ADTRP increases the number of S phase cells during cell cycle, promotes cell proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis. Our study provides novel insights into the function of ADTRP and biological pathways involving ADTRP, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAD.
Project description:STOX1 is a transcription factor involved in preeclampsia and Alzheimer disease. We show that the knock-down of the gene induces rather mild effect on gene expression in trophoblast cell lines (BeWo). We identified binding sites of STOX1 shared by the two major isoforms, STOX1A and STOX1B. Profiling gene expression of cells overexpressing either STOX1A or STOX1B, we identified genes downregulated by both isoforms, with a STOX1 binding site in their promoters. Among those, STOX1-induced Annexin A1 downregulation led to abolished membrane repair in BeWo cells. By contrast, overexpression of STOX1A or B has opposite effects on trophoblast fusion (acceleration and inhibition, respectively) accompanied by syncytin genes deregulation. Also, STOX1A overexpression led to abnormal regulation of oxidative and nitrosative stress. In sum, our work shows that STOX1 isoform imbalance is a cause of gene expression deregulation in the trophoblast, possibly leading to placental dysfunction and preeclampsia.