ABSTRACT: Comprehensive transcriptional characterization of bone marrow endothelial cells by RNA sequencing was performed to determine the molecular properties/signatures of endothelium during bone marrow recovery and niche formation.
Regenerative bone marrow endothelium was FACS-isolated from bone marrow aspirates of Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients 17 days after receiving chemotherapy (n=3). Niche-forming endothelial cells were FACS-isolated from fetal bones (gestational age 15-20 weeks) (n=3). Healthy adult bone marrow endothelial cells (n=7) were used as steady-state controls.
cDNA was prepared using the SMARTer procedure (SMARTer Ultra Low RNA Kit, Clonetech). The provided file type is FASTQ.
Project description:The origin of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is not completely understood. We have identified a rare population of cells with a transcriptional profile consistent with endothelial to mesenchymal transition (Endo-MT) in human fetal development. Therefore, we hypothesized that Endo-MT contributes to bone marrow niche formation in mammals. Here, we sought to determine whether Endo-MT cells could be identified in murine bone marrow during embryonic development. We isolated bone marrow and collagenased bone fraction from long bones of 9 fetuses at embryonic day 17 (E17) and FACS purified endothelial cells and BMSCs for single cell RNA sequencing.
Project description:CD34+ hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) from cryo-preserved blood or bone marrow were FACS sorted in TriZol and RNA was isolated according to the manufacturer’s protocol. SMARTer Ultra Low Input RNA kit for sequencing (Clontech, v4 Cat# 634891) was used to generate cDNA. Sequencing libraries were generated using TruSeq Nano DNA Sample Preparation kits (Illumina, Cat# 20015964), according to the low sample protocol and paired-end sequenced on a HiSeq 2500 or Novaseq 6000 (both Illumina).
Project description:Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside primarily in bone marrow. However, hematopoietic stresses such as myelofibrosis, anemia, pregnancy, infection or myeloablation can mobilize HSCs to the spleen and induce extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). While the bone marrow HSC niche has been studied intensively, the EMH niche has received little attention. Here, we systematically assessed the physiological sources of the key niche factors, SCF and CXCL12, in the mouse spleen after EMH induction by cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, blood loss, or pregnancy. In each case, Scf was expressed by endothelial cells and Tcf21+ stromal cells, primarily around sinusoids in red pulp, while Cxcl12 was expressed by a subset of Tcf21+ stromal cells. EMH induction markedly expanded the Scf-expressing endothelial cells and stromal cells by inducing proliferation. Most splenic HSCs were adjacent to Tcf21+ stromal cells in red pulp. Conditional deletion of Scf from spleen endothelial cells or Scf or Cxcl12 from Tcf21+ stromal cells severely reduced spleen EMH and reduced blood cell counts without affecting bone marrow hematopoiesis. Endothelial cells and Tcf21+ stromal cells thus create the splenic EMH niche, which is necessary for the physiological response to diverse hematopoietic stresses. Unfractionated spleen cells (2 replicates) and FACS-sorted VE-cadherein negative Scf-GFP positive cells (3 replicates)
Project description:We performed lineage tracing experiments using VE-Cadherin-Cre;LoxP-tdTomato mice. In these mice, endothelial cells (ECs) and their progeny are permanently marked by tdTomato fluorescence. We found that a substantial subset of stromal cells is derived from ECs, as indicated by their tdTomato expression. These findings support the notion that endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) contributes to hematopoietic bone marrow niche formation in mice. Here we sought to determine the transcriptomic differences between endothelial-derived (tdTomato-positive) and non-endothelial-derived (tdTomato-negative) bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and osteo/chondrolineage progenitor cells (OLCs). Murine niche populations were obtained from collagenased bone fraction of VE-Cadherin-Cre;LoxP-tdTomato mice at 3 weeks (n=2) or 11 weeks (n=2) of age. BMSCs (CD45-TER119-CD31-CD144-SCA-1+ CD51+ cells) and OLCs (CD45-TER119-CD31-CD144-Sca1-CD51+ cells) were FACS-purified and sequenced.
Project description:Site-1 protease (S1P) ablation in the osterix-lineage in mice drastically reduces bone development and downregulates bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells. Here we show that these mice also suffer from spina bifida occulta with a characteristic lack of bone fusion in the posterior neural arches. Molecular analysis of bone marrow-derived non-red blood cell cells, via single-cell RNA-Seq and protein mass spectrometry, demonstrate that these mice have a much-altered bone marrow with a significant increase in neutrophils and Ly6C-expressing leukocytes. The molecular composition of bone marrow neutrophils is also different as they express more and additional members of the stefin A (Stfa) family of proteins. In vitro, recombinant Stfa1 and Stfa2 proteins have the ability to drastically inhibit osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, with no effect on adipogenic differentiation. FACS analysis of hematopoietic stem cells show that despite a decrease in hematopoietic stem cells, S1P ablation results in an increased production of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, the precursors to neutrophils. These observations indicate that S1P has a role in the lineage specification of hematopoietic stem cells and/or their progenitors for development of a normal hematopoietic niche. Our study designates a fundamental requirement of S1P for maintaining a balanced regenerative capacity of the bone marrow niche.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) And osteolineage cells contribute to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) Niche in the bone marrow of long bones. However, Their developmental relationships remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that different MSC populations in the developing marrow of long bones have distinct functions. Proliferative mesoderm-derived nestin- MSCs participate in fetal skeletogenesis, And lose MSC activity soon after birth. In contrast, Quiescent neural-crest-derived nestin+ Cells in the same bones preserve MSC activity, But do not generate fetal chondrocytes. Instead, They differentiate into HSC-niche-forming MSCs, Helping to establish the HSC niche by secreting Cxcl12. Perineural migration of these cells to the bone marrow requires the ErbB3 receptor. The neonatal Nestin-GFP+ PDGFR- Cell population also contains Schwann-cell precursors, But does not comprise mature Schwann cells. Thus, In the developing bone marrow HSC-niche-forming MSCs share a common origin with sympathetic peripheral neurons and glial cells, And ontogenically distinct MSCs have non-overlapping functions in endochondrogenesis and HSC niche formation. Total RNA was isolated from small numbers of FACS sorted stromal cells, obtained from neonatal Nes-Gfp bone marrow preparations (2 biological replicates). Each independent set of samples was obtained from pooled skeletal elements (long bones and sterna) form multiple littermates.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) inhabit distinct microenvironments within the adult bone marrow (BM) that govern the delicate balance between HSC quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation. It has been suggested that quiescent HSCs localize adjacent to BM arteriole endothelial cells in a significant and non-random distribution. This data suggests that the arteriole BM vascular niche may be the primary HSC niche. Because the BM arteriole niche is composed of tightly-associated pericytes, including smooth muscle actin+, LepR+, Nestin+, NG2+, and nonmyelinating Schwann cells, we sought to begin to uncouple the arteriole BM EC niche by examining its capacity to support the maintenance and expansion of HSCs ex vivo and in vivo. We developed a method to isolate and culture BM arteriole endothelial cells in serum-/growth factor-free conditions, allowing for a non-biased approach to examining their instructive function. Utilizing our protocol, we demonstrate that BM endothelial cells, but not BM stromal cells, have the capacity to expand long-term repopulating, multi-lineage HSCs in lieu of complex serum and cytokine supplementation. In addition, transplantation of arteriole endothelial cells promoted rapid hematopoietic recovery and protected HSCs following an LD50 dose of myeloablative irradiation. These data demonstrate that arteriole-derived BM endothelial cells are endowed with the necessary signals to support the self-renewal and regenerative capacity of LT-HSCs and that transplantation of arteriole BM endothelial cells could be used as a therapeutic means to decrease pancytopenias associated with myeloablative treatments to treat a wide array of disease states. Transcriptome sequencing of bone marrow endothelial cells and bone marrow stroma, in vitro and in vivo, with and without HSC co-culture.
Project description:In the bone marrow, endothelial cells are a major component of the hematopoietic stem cell vascular niche and are a first line of defense against inflammatory stress and infection. The primary response of an organism to infection involves the synthesis of immune-modulatory cytokines, including interferon alpha. In the bone marrow, interferon alpha induces rapid cell cycle entry of hematopoietic stem cells <i>in vivo</i> However, the effect of interferon alpha on bone marrow endothelial cells has not been described. Here, we demonstrate that acute interferon alpha treatment leads to rapid stimulation of bone marrow endothelial cells <i>in vivo</i>, resulting in increased bone marrow vascularity and vascular leakage. We find that activation of bone marrow endothelial cells involves the expression of key inflammatory and endothelial cell-stimulatory markers. This interferon alpha-mediated activation of bone marrow endothelial cells is dependent in part on vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in bone marrow hematopoietic cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells. Thus, this implies a role for hematopoietic stem cells in remodeling of the bone marrow niche <i>in vivo</i> following inflammatory stress. These data increase our current understanding of the relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and the bone marrow niche under inflammatory stress and also clarify the response of bone marrow niche endothelial cells to acute interferon alpha treatment <i>in vivo</i>.
Project description:The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment is composed of multiple niche cells that, by producing paracrine factors, maintain and regenerate the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool (Morrison and Spradling, 2008). We have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support the proper regeneration of the hematopoietic system following myeloablation (Butler et al., 2010; Hooper et al., 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010). Here, we demonstrate that expression of the angiocrine factor Jagged-1, supplied by the BM vascular niche, regulates homeostatic and regenerative hematopoiesis through a Notch-dependent mechanism. Conditional deletion of Jagged-1 in endothelial cells (Jag1((ECKO)) mice) results in a profound decrease in hematopoiesis and premature exhaustion of the adult HSC pool, whereas quantification and functional assays demonstrate that loss of Jagged-1 does not perturb vascular or mesenchymal compartments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the instructive function of endothelial-specific Jagged-1 is required to support the self-renewal and regenerative capacity of HSCs in the adult BM vascular niche.
Project description:The HSC niche factor SCF is required for HSC maintenance. Using an Scf-GFP knockin mouse, we have identified a perivascular cell type in the bone marrow expressing high level of Scf. To characterize the novel Scf-GFP+ cells from the bone marrow, we performed microarray analysis on these cells. Total RNA were isolated from 3 independent, freshly aliquots of FACS sorted 5,000 SCF-GFP+ cells or whole bone marrow cells isolated from young adult mice. Purified RNA was amplified using the WT-OvationM-bM-^DM-" Pico RNA Amplification system (NuGEN Technologies). Sense strand cDNA was generated using WT-OvationM-bM-^DM-" Exon Module (NuGEN), then fragmented and labeled using the FL-OvationM-bM-^DM-" cDNA Biotin Module V2 (NuGEN). 2.5M-BM-5g of labeled cDNA were hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 microarrays.