ABSTRACT: Each tumor sample was cut into three pieces, yielding two end-pieces for cryovials and a middle portion placed in 10% buffered formalin. End pieces were homogenized manually and with a paddle blender (Stomacher). All paraffin-embedded blocks, including formalin-fixed tumor samples and molecular-fixed fallopian tubes, were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin prior to expert histopathological review to confirm the presence of high grade serous carcinoma. Homogenized end pieces were then flash frozen, and RNA was extracted using the miRNeasy Mini kit. Nanodrop was used to assess quality (260/280) and quantity. Total RNA samples were also QC checked using the Caliper HT RNA HiSens assay. Samples ranging from 60-255ng RNA were re-arrayed into a 96-well plate. 5'-RACE PCR was carried out as described in "The interface of malignant and immunologic clonal dynamics in high-grade serous ovarian cancer" (Zhang et al.). Briefly, this involved first round and nested PCR with TRB (TCR beta chain) and IGH (immunoglobulin heavy chain) gene-specific primers. The indexed libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform with paired-end 250bp reads using v2 chemistry reagents.
Project description:Each tumor sample was cut into three pieces, yielding two end-pieces for cryovials and a middle portion placed in 10% buffered formalin. End pieces were homogenized manually and with a paddle blender (Stomacher). All paraffin-embedded blocks, including formalin-fixed tumor samples and molecular-fixed fallopian tubes, were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin prior to expert histopathological review to confirm the presence of high grade serous carcinoma. Homogenized end pieces were then flash frozen and later used for WGS. For all tumor and matched normal (peripheral blood) samples, DNA was extracted with the Qiagen AllPrep DNA/RNA kit (tumor samples from patients 25,26,28-32) or the Qiagen Blood and Tissue Extraction Kit (tumor samples from patients 1-4,7,9-17, and all blood samples). For all tumor and normal samples, DNA extraction was followed by library construction and sequencing using Illumina HiSeq2500 whole genome shotgun v4 chemistry with paired-end 125bp reads.
Project description:In clinical practice, patients' tissues are fixed and paraffin-embedded in order to enable histological diagnosis. Nowadays, those tissues are also used for molecular characterization. Formalin is the most used fixative worldwide, and Bouin's solution in some worldwide institutions. Among molecular targets, micro RNAs (miRNAs), the single-stranded non-coding RNAs comprised of 18 to 24 nucleotides, have been demonstrated to be resistant to fixation and paraffin-embedding processes, with consequent possible application in clinical practice. In the present study, let-7e-5p, miR-423-3p, miR-92a-1-5p, miR-30d-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-200a-3p, and miR-429 were investigated in formalin and matched Bouin's solution-fixed tissues of high grade serous ovarian cancers by means of real-time and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Micro RNAs were detectable and analyzable in both formalin- and Bouin's-fixed specimens, but on average, higher Ct values and lower copies/µL were found in Bouin's-fixed samples. Data from formalin-fixed samples correlated significantly for most targets with Bouin's ones, except for let-7e-5p and miR-155-5p. This study shows that miRNAs are analyzable in both formalin- and Bouin's-fixed specimens, with the possibility, after proper data normalization, to compare miRNA-based data from formalin-fixed samples to those of Bouin's-fixed ones.
Project description:Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are among the most widely available clinical specimens. Their potential utility as a source of RNA for transcriptome studies would greatly enhance population-based cancer studies. Although preliminary studies suggest FFPE tissue may be used for RNA sequencing, the effect of storage time on these specimens needs to be determined. We conducted this study to determine whether RNA in archived FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries was present in sufficient quantity and quality for RNA-Seq analysis. FFPE tissues, stored from 7 to 32 years, were obtained from three SEER sites. RNA was extracted, quantified, quality assessed, and subjected to RNA-Seq (a whole transcriptome sequencing technology). FFPE specimens stored for longer periods of time had poorer RNA sample quality as indicated by negative correlations between specimen storage time and fragment distribution values (DV). In addition, sample contamination was a common issue among the RNA, with 41 of 67 samples having 5% to 48% bacterial contamination. However, regardless of specimen storage time and bacterial contamination, 60% of the samples yielded data that enabled gene expression quantification, identifying more than 10,000 genes, with the correlations among most biological replicates above 0.7. This study demonstrates that FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas specimens stored in repositories for up to 32 years and under varying storage conditions are a promising source of RNA for RNA-Seq. We also describe certain caveats to be considered when designing RNA-Seq studies using archived FFPE tissues.
Project description:Analysis of RNA isolated from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is widely used in biomedical research and molecular pathological diagnostics. We have performed a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the impact of factors in the pre-analytical workflow, such as different fixatives, fixation time, RNA extraction method and storage of tissues in paraffin blocks, on several downstream reactions including complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. We compared the effects of routine formalin fixation with the non-crosslinking, alcohol-based Tissue Tek Xpress Molecular Fixative (TTXMF, Sakura Finetek), and cryopreservation as gold standard for molecular analyses. Formalin fixation introduced major changes into microarray gene expression data and led to marked gene-to-gene variations in delta-ct values of qRT-PCR. We found that qRT-PCR efficiency and gene-to-gene variations were mainly attributed to differences in the efficiency of cDNA synthesis as the most sensitive step. These differences could not be reliably detected by quality assessment of total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tissues by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. Although RNA from TTXMF fixed samples was as fragmented as RNA from formalin fixed samples, much higher cDNA yield and lower ct-values were obtained in qRT-PCR underlining the negative impact of crosslinking by formalin. In order to better estimate the impact of pre-analytical procedures such as fixation on the reliability of downstream analysis, we applied a qRT-PCR-based assay using amplicons of different length and an assay measuring the efficiency of cDNA generation. Together these two assays allowed better quality assessment of RNA extracted from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and should be used to supplement quality scores derived from automated electrophoresis. A better standardization of the pre-analytical workflow, application of additional quality controls and detailed sample information would markedly improve the comparability and reliability of molecular studies based on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
Project description:Low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas are typically Ras-pathway mutated, TP53 wild-type, have limited chromosomal aberration, and are frequently associated with borderline tumors. By contrast, high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma lack Ras-pathway mutations, are invariably TP53 mutated, show widespread genomic change, and are commonly BRCA-pathway disrupted.We sought to identify differences in genomic copy number changes between co-existing borderline and invasive components of serous carcinoma. Paired co-existing borderline and invasive tumor components were sampled and profiled from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumors from 6 patients
Project description:BACKGROUND:The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer - estrogen receptor and HER2 - at the RNA and protein levels. METHODS:Parallel sections of 62 cases of breast cancer were fixed in an alcohol-based molecular fixative and in formalin. Molecular fixative samples were processed by a novel formalin-free microwave-assisted processing system that preserves DNA, RNA and proteins. Formalin-fixed samples were processed using the conventional method. Estrogen receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. HER2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, FISH, CISH and real-time PCR. RESULTS:The immunohistochemical reaction for estrogen receptor was similar in molecular- and formalin-fixed samples (Spearman Rank R = 0.83, p < 0.05). Also HER2 result was similar to that of formalin-fixed counterparts after elimination of antigen retrieval step (Spearman Rank R = 0.84, p < 0.05). The result of HER2 amplification by FISH and CISH was identical in the molecular fixative and formalin-fixed samples; although a shorter digestion step was required when using the former fixative. Real-time PCR for both estrogen receptor and HER2 were successful in all of the molecular fixative specimens. CONCLUSION:The formalin-free tissue fixation and processing system is a practical platform for evaluation of biomolecular markers in breast cancer and it allows reliable DNA and RNA and protein studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although current American guidelines distinguish proton pump inhibitor-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) from eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), these entities are broadly similar. While two microarray studies showed that they have similar transcriptomes, more extensive RNA sequencing studies have not been done previously. AIM:To determine whether RNA sequencing identifies genetic markers distinguishing PPI-REE from EoE. METHODS:We retrospectively examined 13 PPI-REE and 14 EoE biopsies, matched for tissue eosinophil content, and 14 normal controls. Patients and controls were not PPI-treated at the time of biopsy. We did RNA sequencing on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, with differential expression confirmation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We validated the use of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded vs RNAlater-preserved tissue, and compared our formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded EoE results to a prior EoE study. RESULTS:By RNA sequencing, no genes were differentially expressed between the EoE and PPI-REE groups at the false discovery rate (FDR) ?0.01 level. Compared to normal controls, 1996 genes were differentially expressed in the PPI-REE group and 1306 genes in the EoE group. By less stringent criteria, only MAPK8IP2 was differentially expressed between PPI-REE and EoE (FDR = 0.029, 2.2-fold less in EoE than in PPI-REE), with similar results by PCR. KCNJ2, which was differentially expressed in a prior study, was similar in the EoE and PPI-REE groups by both RNA sequencing and real-time PCR. CONCLUSION:Eosinophilic oesophagitis and PPI-REE have comparable transcriptomes, confirming that they are part of the same disease continuum.
Project description:Gene expression signatures have been identified for epithelial ovarian cancer survival (TCGA) and intrinsic subtypes (Tothill et al.). One obstacle to clinical translation is that these signatures were developed using frozen tissue, whereas usually only formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue is available. The aim of this study was to determine if gene expression signatures can be translated to fixed archival tissues.RNA extracted from FFPE sections from 240 primary ovarian cancers was analyzed by DASL on Illumina BeadChip arrays. Concordance of expression at the individual gene level was assessed by comparing array data from the same cancers (30 frozen samples analyzed on Affymetrix arrays versus FFPE DASL).The correlation between FFPE and frozen survival signature estimates was 0.774. The TCGA signature using DASL was predictive of survival in 106 advanced stage high grade serous ovarian cancers (median survival 33 versus 60 months, estimated hazard ratio for death 2.30, P=0.0007). Similar to Tothill, we found using DASL that most high grade serous ovarian cancers (102/110, 93%) were assigned to subtypes 1, 2, 4 and 5, whereas most endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous cases (39/57, 68%) were assigned to subtypes 3 and 6 (P<10e-15).Although individual probe estimates of microarrays may be weakly correlated between FFPE and frozen samples, combinations of probes have robust ability to predict survival and subtype. This suggests that it may be possible to use these signatures for prognostic and predictive purposes as we seek to individualize the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Laser microdissection microscopy (LMM) has potential as a research tool because it allows precise excision of target tissues or cells from a complex biological specimen, and facilitates tissue-specific sample preparation. However, this method has not been used in mosquito vectors to date. To this end, we have developed an LMM method to isolate midgut RNA using Aedes aegypti.Total RNA was isolated from Ae. aegypti midguts that were either fresh-frozen or fixed with histological fixatives. Generally, fresh-frozen tissue sections are a common source of quality LMM-derived RNA; however, our aim was to develop an LMM protocol that could inactivate pathogenic viruses by fixation, while simultaneously preserving RNA from arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. Three groups (10 - 15 mosquitoes per group) of female Ae. aegypti at 24 or 48-hours post-blood meal were intrathoracically injected with one of seven common fixatives (Bouin's, Carnoy's, Formoy's, Cal-Rite, 4% formalin, 10% neutral buffered formalin, or zinc formalin) to evaluate their effect on RNA quality. Total RNA was isolated from the fixed abdomens using a Trizol® method. The results indicated that RNA from Carnoy's and Bouin's fixative samples was comparable to that of fresh frozen midguts (control) in duplicate experiments. When Carnoy's and Bouin's were used to fix the midguts for the LMM procedure, however, Carnoy's-fixed RNA clearly showed much less degradation than Bouin's-fixed RNA. In addition, a sample of 5 randomly chosen transcripts were amplified more efficiently using the Carnoy's treated LMM RNA than Bouin's-fixed RNA in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, suggesting there were more intact target mRNAs in the Carnoy's fixed RNA. The yields of total RNA ranged from 0.3 to 19.0 ng per ~3.0 × 10(6) ?m2 in the LMM procedure.Carnoy's fixative was found to be highly compatible with LMM, producing high quality RNA from Ae. aegypti midguts while inactivating viral pathogens. Our findings suggest that LMM in conjunction with Carnoy's fixation can be applied to studies in Ae. aegypti infected with arboviruses without compromising biosafety and RNA quality. This LMM method should be applicable to other mosquito vector studies.
Project description:Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tumors are widely available and represent a unique source of morphologically defined material. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is known to contain a wealth of molecular information in the form of microRNAs (miRNAs), which could be correlated with clinical outcome for improved prognostication and/or treatment response. miRNAs are endogenous, noncoding RNAs ( approximately 22 nucleotides) and may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. A reliable, robust methodology is needed to take full advantage of archived human cancers, especially for those where fresh-frozen tumor banks are unavailable, for example, malignant melanoma. To this end, we applied a simple-to-use protocol for extracting total RNA from various formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (colon, liver, prostate, thyroid, uterus, and skin), optimized for small RNA recovery. Using a "poison primer" strategy (ie, primer silencing), we blocked the amplification of ribosomal RNA, enabling the successful sequencing of 17 novel and 53 known miRNAs (including small RNAs) from 10-year-old archived normal skin, cutaneous scalp melanoma, and sentinel lymph nodes (both negative and positive for metastasis) excised from a 52-year-old man. The cloning incidence provided an estimation of the level of specific miRNA expression, which was confirmed by Northern analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This methodology can therefore be used to facilitate miRNA discovery from archived human cancers.