Bioactive compound from marine sponge-derived Streptomyces sp. SBT348 inhibits staphylococcal growth and biofilm formation
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common inhabitant of human skin and mucosal surfaces has emerged as an important pathogen in patients receiving surgical implants and medical devices. Entering the body via surgical sites and colonizing the medical devices through formation of multi-layered biofilms it leads to refractory and persistent device-related infections (DRIs). Staphylococcal proportions within biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics and immune responses, and thus are hard-to-treat. The consequent morbidity and mortality, and economic losses in health care systems has strongly necessitated the need for development of new anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm based therapeutics. In this study, we describe the biological activity of a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces sp. SBT348 extract in restraining staphylococcal growth and biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass, medically relevant titan metal and silicone surfaces. A bio-assay guided fractionation was performed to isolate the active compound (C3) from the crude SBT348 extract. Our results demonstrated that C3 effectively inhibits the growth (MIC: 31.25 µg/ml) and biofilm formation (sub-MIC range: 1.95-<31.25 µg/ml) of S. epidermidis RP62A in vitro. Chemical characterization of C3 by heat and enzyme treatments, and High-Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) revealed its heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature, and high molecular weight (1258. 3257 Da). Cytotoxicity profiling of C3 in vitro on mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) and macrophage (J774.1) cell lines, and in vivo on the greater wax moth larvae Galleria melonella revealed its non-toxic nature at the effective dose. Transcriptome analysis of C3 treated-S. epidermidis RP62A has further unmasked the negative effect of C3 on central metabolism (carbon, amino acid and protein, lipids, nucleotide and energy) suggesting its mode of action. Taken together, these findings suggest that C3 could be possibly used as antibacterial and antibiofilm coatings on medically-relevant surfaces and prevent the relapsing staphylococcal DRIs. Overall design: Examination of transcriptome of S. epidermidis RP62A treated with the bioactive compound C3 (62.5 µg/ml) at 20 min and 3 h time point
Project description:Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common inhabitant of human skin and mucosal surfaces has emerged as an important pathogen in patients carrying surgical implants and medical devices. Entering the body via surgical sites and colonizing the medical devices through formation of multi-layered biofilms leads to refractory and persistent device-related infections (DRIs). Staphylococci organized in biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics and immune responses, and thus are difficult-to-treat. The consequent morbidity and mortality, and economic losses in health care systems has strongly necessitated the need for development of new anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm-based therapeutics. In this study, we describe the biological activity of a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces sp. SBT348 extract in restraining staphylococcal growth and biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass, medically relevant titan metal, and silicone surfaces. A bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to isolate the active compound (SKC3) from the crude SBT348 extract. Our results demonstrated that SKC3 effectively inhibits the growth (MIC: 31.25 μg/ml) and biofilm formation (sub-MIC range: 1.95-<31.25 μg/ml) of S. epidermidis RP62A in vitro. Chemical characterization of SKC3 by heat and enzyme treatments, and mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealed its heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature, and high molecular weight (1258.3 Da). Cytotoxicity profiling of SKC3 in vitro on mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) and macrophage (J774.1) cell lines, and in vivo on the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella revealed its non-toxic nature at the effective dose. Transcriptome analysis of SKC3 treated S. epidermidis RP62A has further unmasked its negative effect on central metabolism such as carbon flux as well as, amino acid, lipid, and energy metabolism. Taken together, these findings suggest a potential of SKC3 as a putative drug to prevent staphylococcal DRIs.
Project description:Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to absence of cell toxicity, the extract might represent a good starting material to develop a future remedy to block staphylococcal biofilm formation on contact lenses and thereby to prevent intractable contact lens-mediated ocular infections.
Project description:Both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis can form biofilms on natural surfaces or abiotic surfaces, such as medical implants, resulting in biofilm-associated diseases that are refractory to antibiotic treatment. We previously reported a promising antibacterial compound (Compound 2) and its derivatives with bactericidal and anti-biofilm activities against both S. epidermidis and S. aureus. We have further evaluated the antibacterial activities of four Compound 2 derivatives (H2-38, H2-39, H2-74 and H2-81) against 163 clinical strains of S. epidermidis and S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains, as well as biofilm-forming and non-biofilm-forming strains. The four derivatives inhibited the planktonic growth of all of the clinical staphylococcal isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis and displayed bactericidal activities against both immature (6?h) and mature (24?h) biofilms formed by the strong biofilm-forming strains. The derivatives, which all target YycG, will help us to develop new antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant staphylococci infections and biofilm-associated diseases.
Project description:Treating staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections is challenging. Based on the findings that compound 2 targeting the HK domain of Staphylococcus epidermidis YycG has bactericidal and antibiofilm activities against staphylococci, six newly synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their antibacterial activities. The six derivatives of compound 2 inhibited autophosphorylation of recombinant YycG' and the IC50 values ranged from 24.2 to 71.2 ?M. The derivatives displayed bactericidal activity against planktonic S. epidermidis or Staphylococcus aureus strains in the MIC range of 1.5-3.1 ?M. All the derivatives had antibiofilm activities against the 6- and 24-h biofilms of S. epidermidis. Compared to the prototype compound 2, they had less cytotoxicity for Vero cells and less hemolytic activity for human erythrocytes. The derivatives showed antibacterial activities against clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates. The structural modification of YycG inhibitors will assist the discovery of novel agents to eliminate biofilm infections and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections.
Project description:Infections caused by staphylococci represent a medical concern, especially when related to biofilms located in implanted medical devices, such as prostheses and catheters. Unfortunately, their frequent resistance to high doses of antibiotics makes the treatment of these infections a difficult task. Moreover, biofilms represent a hot spot for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) by bacterial conjugation. In this work, 25 biofilm-forming clinical staphylococcal isolates were studied. We found that Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates showed a higher biofilm-forming capacity than Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Additionally, horizontal transfer and relaxase genes of two common staphylococcal plasmids, pSK41 and pT181, were detected in all isolates. In terms of antibiotic resistance genes, aac6-aph2a, ermC, and tetK genes, which confer resistance to gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively, were the most prevalent. The horizontal transfer and antibiotic resistance genes harbored on these staphylococcal clinical strains isolated from biofilms located in implanted medical devices points to the potential risk of the development and dissemination of multiresistant bacteria.
Project description:The prevalence and structure of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis within multispecies biofilms were found to depend sensitively on physical environment and antibiotic dosage. Although these species commonly infect similar sites, such as orthopedic implants, little is known about their behavior in multispecies communities, particularly in response to treatment. This research establishes that S. aureus is much more prevalent than S. epidermidis when simultaneously seeded and grown under unstressed conditions (pH 7, 37°C) in both laboratory and clinical strains. In multispecies communities, S. epidermidis is capable of growing a more confluent biofilm when the addition of S. aureus is delayed 4 to 6 h during 18 h of growth. Different vancomycin dosages generate various behaviors: S. epidermidis is more prevalent at a dose of 1.0 ?g/ml vancomycin, but reduced growth of both species occurs at 1.9 ?g/ml vancomycin. This variability is consistent with the different MICs of S. aureus and S. epidermidis Growth at higher temperature (45°C) results in an environment where S. aureus forms porous biofilms. This porosity allows S. epidermidis to colonize more of the surface, resulting in detectable S. epidermidis biomass. Variations in pH result in increased prevalence of S. epidermidis at low pH (pH 5 and 6), while S. aureus remains dominant at high pH (pH 8 and 9). This work establishes the structural variability of multispecies staphylococcal biofilms as they undergo physical and antimicrobial treatments. It provides a basis for understanding the structure of these communities at infection sites and how treatments disrupt their multispecies behaviors.IMPORTANCEStaphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two species of bacteria that are commonly responsible for biofilm infections on medical devices. Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria surrounded by polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA; bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobials as part of a biofilm than as individual cells. This work investigates the structure and prevalence of these two organisms when grown together in multispecies biofilms and shows shifts in the behavior of the polymicrobial community when grown in various concentrations of vancomycin (an antibiotic commonly used to treat staphylococcal infections), in a high-temperature environment (a condition previously shown to lead to cell disruption and death), and at low and high pH (a change that has been previously shown to soften the mechanical properties of staphylococcal biofilms). These shifts in community structure demonstrate the effect such treatments may have on multispecies staphylococcal infections.
Project description:Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens in nosocomial infections. The main pathogenicity associated with S. epidermidis involves the formation of biofilms on implanted medical devices, biofilms dramatically decrease the efficacy of conventional antibiotics and the host immune system. This emphasizes the urgent need for designing novel anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents. Based on the findings that compound 5, targeting the histidine kinase domain of S. epidermidis YycG, possessed bactericidal activity against staphylococci, 39 derivatives of compound 5 with intact thiazolopyrimidinone core structures were newly designed, 7 derivatives were further screened to explore their anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities. The seven derivatives strongly inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus in the minimal inhibitory concentration range of 1.56-6.25 ?M. All the derivatives reduced the proportion of viable cells in mature biofilms. They all displayed low cytotoxicity on mammalian cells and were not hemolytic to human erythrocytes. The biofilm inhibition activities of four derivatives (H5-32, H5-33, H5-34, and H5-35) were further investigated under shearing forces, they all led to significant decreases in the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. These results were suggestive that the seven derivatives of compound 5 have the potential to be developed into agents for eradicating biofilm-associated infections.
Project description:Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation is responsible for the persistence of orthopedic implant infections. Previous studies have shown that exposure of S. epidermidis biofilms to sub-MICs of antibiotics induced an increased level of biofilm persistence. BODIPY FL-vancomycin (a fluorescent vancomycin conjugate) and confocal microscopy were used to show that the penetration of vancomycin through sub-MIC-vancomycin-treated S. epidermidis biofilms was impeded compared to that of control, untreated biofilms. Further experiments showed an increase in the extracellular DNA (eDNA) concentration in biofilms preexposed to sub-MIC vancomycin, suggesting a potential role for eDNA in the hindrance of vancomycin activity. Exogenously added, S. epidermidis DNA increased the planktonic vancomycin MIC and protected biofilm cells from lethal vancomycin concentrations. Finally, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) revealed that the binding constant of DNA and vancomycin was 100-fold higher than the previously reported binding constant of vancomycin and its intended cellular d-Ala-d-Ala peptide target. This study provides an explanation of the eDNA-based mechanism of antibiotic tolerance in sub-MIC-vancomycin-treated S. epidermidis biofilms, which might be an important factor for the persistence of biofilm infections.
Project description:Biofilm formation on central lines or peripheral catheters is a serious threat to patient well-being. Contaminated vascular devices can act as a nidus for bloodstream infection and systemic pathogen dissemination. Staphylococcal biofilms are the most common cause of central-line-associated bloodstream infections, and antibiotic resistance makes them difficult to treat. As an alternative to antibiotic intervention, we sought to identify anti-staphylococcal biofilm targets for the development of a vaccine or antibody prophylactic. A screening strategy was devised using a microfluidic system to test antibody-mediated biofilm inhibition under biologically relevant conditions of shear flow. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to target antigen PhnD inhibited both Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus biofilms. PhnD-specific antibodies blocked biofilm development at the initial attachment and aggregation stages, and deletion of phnD inhibited normal biofilm formation. We further adapted our microfluidic biofilm system to monitor the interaction of human neutrophils with staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrated that PhnD-specific antibodies also serve as opsonins to enhance neutrophil binding, motility, and biofilm engulfment. These data support the identification of PhnD as a lead target for biofilm intervention strategies performed either by vaccination or through passive administration of antibodies.
Project description:Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are important causative agents of hospital-acquired infections and bacteremia, likely due to their ability to form biofilms. The production of a dense exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix enclosing the cells slows the penetration of antibiotic down, resulting in therapy failure. The EPS depolymerase (Dpo7) derived from bacteriophage vB_SepiS-phiIPLA7, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. A dose dependent but time independent response was observed after treatment of staphylococcal 24 h-biofilms with Dpo7. Maximum removal (>90%) of biofilm-attached cells was obtained with 0.15 ?M of Dpo7 in all polysaccharide producer strains but Dpo7 failed to eliminate polysaccharide-independent biofilm formed by S. aureus V329. Moreover, the pre-treatment of polystyrene surfaces with Dpo7 reduced the biofilm biomass by 53-85% in the 67% of the tested strains. This study supports the use of phage-encoded EPS depolymerases to prevent and disperse staphylococcal biofilms, thereby making bacteria more susceptible to the action of antimicrobials.