Wind-responsive changes in poplar leaves of different developmental stages
ABSTRACT: A developmental series of wind-treated Populus leaf tissue was subjected to array analyses in order to address the issue of age-dependent responsiveness to environmental changes. The following developmental stages were defined for the experiment: Y – “youngest leaf” including the shoot tip = smallest fully enrolled leaf; E – “expanded leaf” = oldest leaf that had not reached full leaf thickness; M – “mature leaf” = 5th leaf below E = has reached full leaf expansion and full leaf thickness; O – “old leaf” = 5th leaf below E. Keywords: transcription profiling Overall design: Two-condition experiment, control (K) vs. Wind-treated (W) leaves. Biological replicates: 3 control (1-3), wind-exposed (1-3), independently grown and harvested. One swap replicate per array.
Project description:A developmental series of wind-treated Populus leaf tissue was subjected to array analyses in order to address the issue of age-dependent responsiveness to environmental changes. The following developmental stages were defined for the experiment: Y – “youngest leaf” including the shoot tip = smallest fully enrolled leaf; E – “expanded leaf” = oldest leaf that had not reached full leaf thickness; M – “mature leaf” = 5th leaf below E = has reached full leaf expansion and full leaf thickness; O – “old leaf” = 5th leaf below E. Keywords: transcription profiling Two-condition experiment, control (K) vs. Wind-treated (W) leaves. Biological replicates: 3 control (1-3), wind-exposed (1-3), independently grown and harvested. One swap replicate per array.
Project description:Analysis of different leaves from transgenic plants over expressing microRNA miR156. Time-dependent gene expression is essential for developmental timing control. MiR156 was characterized as a time-dependent expressed microRNA during leaf development. The level of miR156 is positive correlated to developmental time during leaf growth. We used microarray to identify genes regulated by miR156 in a time-dependent manner during leaf development. Results indicate that most time-negative genes were activated in mature leaves of miR156 over expressed plants compared with wild type. Keywords: gene expression array-based (RNA / in situ oligonucleotide) To identify the temporal regulation role of miR156 in different leaves, all leaves in the main tiller were collected separately from Md/Mh (miR156 over expressed lines) and wild type (WT) plants. The level of miR156 were checked in these samples, then three biological repeats were selected and these RNA samples of the oldest (L1) and youngest leaf (L4 or L5) were applied for microarray hybridization.
Project description:Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (P< 0.05), as indicted by smaller specific leaf area (SLA), stem base diameter and stem height under windy conditions when compared to the control. The Quercus trees with leaves characterized by lanceolate or sinuous edges, showed positive morphological responses to wind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (P< 0.05). These morphological responses to wind can reduce drag and increase the mechanical strength of the tree. Leaf dissection index (LDI), an important index of leaf shape, was correlated with morphological response to wind load (P< 0.05), including differences in SLA, in stem base diameter and in allocation to root biomass. These results suggest that trees with higher LDI, such as those with more and/or deeper lobes, are better adapted to wind load.
Project description:In general, yield and fruit quality strongly rely on efficient nutrient remobilization during plant development and senescence. Transcriptome changes associated with senescence in spring oilseed rape grown under optimal nitrogen supply or mild nitrogen deficiency revealed differences in senescence and nutrient mobilization in old lower canopy leaves and younger higher canopy leaves . Having a closer look at this transcriptome analyses, we identified the major classes of seed storage proteins (SSP) to be expressed in vegetative tissue, namely leaf and stem tissue. Expression of SSPs was not only dependent on the nitrogen supply but transcripts appeared to correlate with intracellular H₂O₂ contents, which functions as well-known signaling molecule in developmental senescence. The abundance of SSPs in leaf material transiently progressed from the oldest leaves to the youngest. Moreover, stems also exhibited short-term production of SSPs, which hints at an interim storage function. In order to decipher whether hydrogen peroxide also functions as a signaling molecule in nitrogen deficiency-induced senescence, we analyzed hydrogen peroxide contents after complete nitrogen depletion in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis plants. In both cases, hydrogen peroxide contents were lower in nitrogen deficient plants, indicating that at least parts of the developmental senescence program appear to be suppressed under nitrogen deficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important food crop in the tropics that has a high growth rate in optimal conditions, but also performs well in drought-prone climates. The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of water deficit and rewatering on the rate of expansion of leaves at different developmental stages and to evaluate the extent to which decreases in cell proliferation, expansion, and delay in development are responsible for reduced growth. METHODS: Glasshouse-grown cassava plants were subjected to 8 d of water deficit followed by rewatering. Leaves at 15 developmental stages from nearly full size to meristematic were sampled, and epidermal cell size and number were measured on leaves at four developmental stages. KEY RESULTS: Leaf expansion and development were nearly halted during stress but resumed vigorously after rewatering. In advanced-stage leaves (Group 1) in which development was solely by cell expansion, expansion resumed after rewatering, but not sufficiently for cell size to equal that of controls at maturity. In Group 2 (cell proliferation), relative expansion rate and cell proliferation were delayed until rewatering, but then recovered partially, so that loss of leaf area was due to decreased cell numbers per leaf. In Group 3 (early meristematic development) final leaf area was not affected by stress, but development was delayed by 4-6 d. On a plant basis, the proportion of loss of leaf area over 26 d attributed to leaves at each developmental stage was 29, 50 and 21 % in Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although cell growth processes were sensitive to mild water deficit, they recovered to a large extent, and much of the reduction in leaf area was caused by developmental delay and a reduction in cell division in the youngest, meristematic leaves.
Project description:Background/aims:To report alterations in visual acuity and visual pathway structure over an interval of 1-3 years in a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults who have Wolfram syndrome (WFS) and to describe the range of disease severity evident in patients with WFS whose ages differed by as much as 20 years at first examination. Methods:Annual, prospective ophthalmological examinations were performed in conjunction with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis. Diffusion tensor MRI-derived fractional anisotropy was used to assess the microstructural integrity of the optic radiations (OR FA). Results:Mean age of the 23 patients with WFS in the study was 13.8 years (range 5-25 years). Mean log minimum angle resolution visual acuity was 0.66 (20/91). RNFL thickness was subnormal in even the youngest patients with WFS. Average RNFL thickness in patients with WFS was 57±8 µ or ~40% thinner than that measured in normal (94±10 µ) children and adolescents (P<0.01). Lower OR FA correlated with worse visual acuity (P=0.006). Subsequent examinations showed declines (P<0.05) in visual acuity, RNFL thickness and OR FA at follow-up intervals of 12-36 months. However, a wide range of disease severity was evident across ages: some of the youngest patients at their first examination had deficits more severe than the oldest patients. Conclusion:The genetic mutation of WFS causes damage to both pregeniculate and postgeniculate regions of the visual pathway. The damage is progressive. The decline in visual pathway structure is accompanied by declines of visual function. Disease severity differs widely in individual patients and cannot be predicted from their age.
Project description:The goal of the present study was to compare the structural and compositional differences of cuticle between tender leaf and fully-expanded leaf in Camellia sinensis, and provide metabolic base for the further characterization of wax biosynthesis in this economically important crop species. The tender second leaf and the fully-expanded fifth leaf from new twig were demonstrated to represent two different developmental stages, their cuticle thickness were measured by transmission electron microscopy. The thickness of the adaxial cuticle on the second and fifth leaf was 1.15?µm and 2.48?µm, respectively; the thickness of the abaxial cuticle on the second and fifth leaf was 0.47?µm and 1.05?µm, respectively. The thickness of the epicuticular wax layer from different leaf position or different sides of same leaf were similar. However, the intracuticular wax layer of the fifth leaf was much thicker than that of the second leaf. Total wax lipids were isolated from the second leaf and the fifth leaf, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 51 wax constituents belonging to 13 chemical classes, including esters, glycols, terpenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. Wax coverage on the second and fifth leaf was 4.76?µg/cm2 and 15.38?µg/cm2, respectively. Primary alcohols dominated in the tender second leaf. However, triterpenoids were the major components from the fully-expanded fifth leaf. The predominant carbon chains varied depending on chemical class. These data showed that the wax profiles of Camellia sinensis leaves are development stage dependent, suggesting distinct developmental dependent metabolic pathways and regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:Water is an increasingly scarce resource that limits crop productivity in many parts of the world, and the frequency and severity of drought are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Improving tolerance to drought stress is therefore important for maximizing future crop yields. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of drought on soybean (Glycine max) leaves and nodules in order to define phenotypic markers and changes in cellular redox state that characterize the stress response in different organs, and to characterize the relationships between leaf and nodule senescence during drought.Leaf and crown nodule metabolite pools were measured together with leaf and soil water contents, and leaf chlorophyll, total protein contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters in nodulated soybeans that were grown under either well-watered conditions or deprived of water for up to 21 d.Ureides, ascorbate, protein, chlorophyll and the ratios of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv') to maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fm') fell to levels below detection in the oldest leaves after 21 d of drought. While these drought-induced responses were not observed in the youngest leaf ranks, the Fv'/Fm' ratios, pyridine nucleotide levels and the reduction state of the ascorbate pool were lower in all leaf ranks after 21 d of drought. In contrast to leaves, total nodule protein, pyridine nucleotides, ureides, ascorbate and glutathione contents increased as a result of the drought treatment. However, the nodule ascorbate pool was significantly less reduced as a result of drought. Higher levels of transcripts encoding two peroxiredoxins were detected in nodules exposed to drought stress but senescence-associated transcripts and other mRNAs encoding redox-related proteins were similar under both conditions.While the physiological impact of the drought was perceived throughout the shoot, stress-induced senescence occurred only in the oldest leaf ranks. At this stage, a number of drought-induced changes in nodule metabolites were observed but no metabolite or transcript markers of senescence could be detected. It is concluded that stress-induced senescence in the lowest leaf ranks precedes nodule senescence, suggesting that leaves of low photosynthetic capacity are sacrificed in favour of nodule nitrogen metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Self-rated health (SRH) holistically captures older adults' health status from the perspective of the individual. AIMS:To explore the accuracy of five objective health indicators related to diseases, physical function, cognition and disability in discriminating SRH among the youngest and oldest old. METHODS:We used baseline data from 2196 participants of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), Sweden (years 2001-2004). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were obtained from logistic regressions adjusted by sex, age and education. RESULTS:Among the youngest old, having???4 chronic diseases showed the highest discriminatory capacity of poor versus good SRH (AUROC: 0.714). Among the oldest old, a walking speed?<?1.0 m/s showed the highest discriminatory capacity of poor versus good SRH (AUROC: 0.683), followed by???1 limitations in IADL (AUROC: 0.664). CONCLUSION:What matters most for SRH in older people depends on age, with walking speed playing a major role among the oldest old.
Project description:Leaf thickness is a quantitative trait that is associated with the ability of plants to occupy dry, high irradiance environments. Despite its importance, leaf thickness has been difficult to measure reproducibly, which has impeded progress in understanding its genetic basis, and the associated anatomical mechanisms that pattern it. Here, we used a custom-built dual confocal profilometer device to measure leaf thickness in the Arabidopsis Ler × Cvi recombinant inbred line population and found statistical support for four quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with this trait. We used publically available data for a suite of traits relating to flowering time and growth responses to light quality and show that three of the four leaf thickness QTL coincide with QTL for at least one of these traits. Using time course photography, we quantified the relative growth rate and the pace of rosette leaf initiation in the Ler and Cvi ecotypes. We found that Cvi rosettes grow slower than Ler, both in terms of the rate of leaf initiation and the overall rate of biomass accumulation. Collectively, these data suggest that leaf thickness is tightly linked with physiological status and may present a tradeoff between the ability to withstand stress and rapid vegetative growth. To understand the anatomical basis of leaf thickness, we compared cross-sections of Cvi and Ler leaves and show that Cvi palisade mesophyll cells elongate anisotropically contributing to leaf thickness. Flow cytometry of whole leaves show that endopolyploidy accompanies thicker leaves in Cvi. Overall, our data suggest that mechanistically, an altered schedule of cellular events affecting endopolyploidy and increasing palisade mesophyll cell length contribute to increase of leaf thickness in Cvi. Ultimately, knowledge of the genetic basis and developmental trajectory leaf thickness will inform the mechanisms by which natural selection acts to produce variation in this adaptive trait.