Genome wide gene expression profiling demonstrated that mouse ESC and iPSC differentiated osteoblast progenitors resemble osteoblasts
ABSTRACT: We differentiated mouse Col2.3 GFP ESCs and iPSCs to osteoblast progenitors and confirmed the osteoblast identity of ESC- and iPSC-derived osteoblasts using RNA-sequencing and hierarchical clustering, and demonstrate that Col2.3GFP+ sorted cells are more similar to freshly isolated Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts from mouse bone than to unsorted cells based on whole genome expression profiling. Overall design: ESC- and iPSC-derived osteoblasts, and Col2.3GFP+ sorted cells and freshly isolated Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts
Project description:Appropriate and abundant sources of bone-forming osteoblasts are essential for bone tissue engineering. Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and thereby offer a potentially unlimited supply of osteoblasts, a significant advantage over other cell sources. We generated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from transgenic mice expressing rat 2.3?kb type I collagen promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (Col2.3GFP), a reporter of the osteoblast lineage. We demonstrated that Col2.3GFP ESCs and iPSCs can be successfully differentiated to osteoblast lineage cells that express Col2.3GFP in vitro. We harvested GFP+ osteoblasts differentiated from ESCs. Genome wide gene expression profiles validated that ESC- and iPSC-derived osteoblasts resemble calvarial osteoblasts, and that Col2.3GFP expression serves as a marker for mature osteoblasts. Our results confirm the cell identity of ESC- and iPSC-derived osteoblasts and highlight the potential of pluripotent stem cells as a source of osteoblasts for regenerative medicine.
Project description:Bone fractures occur in horses following traumatic and non-traumatic (bone overloading) events. They can be difficult to treat due to the need for the horse to bear weight on all legs during the healing period. Regenerative medicine to improve fracture union and recovery could significantly improve horse welfare. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have previously been derived. Here we show that equine iPSCs cultured for 21?days in osteogenic induction media on an OsteoAssay surface upregulate the expression of osteoblast associated genes and proteins, including COL1A1, SPARC, SPP1, IBSP, RUNX2 and BGALP We also demonstrate that iPSC-osteoblasts are able to produce a mineralised matrix with both calcium and hydroxyapatite deposition. Alkaline phosphatase activity is also significantly increased during osteoblast differentiation. Although the genetic background of the iPSC donor animal affects the level of differentiation observed after 21?days of differentiation, less variation between lines of iPSCs derived from the same horse was observed. The successful, direct, differentiation of equine iPSCs into osteoblasts may provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine strategies to improve fracture repair in horses undergoing surgery. iPSC-derived osteoblasts will also provide a potential tool to study equine bone development and disease.
Project description:Bcl2 subfamily proteins, including Bcl2 and Bcl-X(L), inhibit apoptosis. As osteoblast apoptosis is in part responsible for osteoporosis in sex steroid deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, and aging, bone loss might be inhibited by the upregulation of Bcl2; however, the effects of Bcl2 overexpression on osteoblast differentiation and bone development and maintenance have not been fully investigated. To investigate these issues, we established two lines of osteoblast-specific BCL2 transgenic mice. In BCL2 transgenic mice, bone volume was increased at 6 weeks of age but not at 10 weeks of age compared with wild-type mice. The numbers of osteoblasts and osteocytes increased, but osteoid thickness and the bone formation rate were reduced in BCL2 transgenic mice with high expression at 10 weeks of age. The number of BrdU-positive cells was increased but that of TUNEL-positive cells was unaltered at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Osteoblast differentiation was inhibited, as shown by reduced Col1a1 and osteocalcin expression. Osteoblast differentiation of calvarial cells from BCL2 transgenic mice also fell in vitro. Overexpression of BCL2 in primary osteoblasts had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in co-culture with bone marrow cells. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts eventually caused osteocyte apoptosis. Osteocytes, which had a reduced number of processes, gradually died with apoptotic structural alterations and the expression of apoptosis-related molecules, and dead osteocytes accumulated in cortical bone. These findings indicate that overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts inhibits osteoblast differentiation, reduces osteocyte processes, and causes osteocyte apoptosis.
Project description:Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by bi-allelic mutations in GBA1, the gene that encodes acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Individuals affected by GD have hematologic, visceral and bone abnormalities, and in severe cases there is also neurodegeneration. To shed light on the mechanisms by which mutant GBA1 causes bone disease, we examined the ability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from patients with Types 1, 2 and 3 GD, to differentiate to osteoblasts and carry out bone deposition. Differentiation of GD iPSC to osteoblasts revealed that these cells had developmental defects and lysosomal abnormalities that interfered with bone matrix deposition. Compared with controls, GD iPSC-derived osteoblasts exhibited reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, and bone matrix protein and mineral deposition were defective. Concomitantly, canonical Wnt/β catenin signaling in the mutant osteoblasts was downregulated, whereas pharmacological Wnt activation with the GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 rescued GD osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix deposition. Importantly, incubation with recombinant GCase (rGCase) rescued the differentiation and bone-forming ability of GD osteoblasts, demonstrating that the abnormal GD phenotype was caused by GCase deficiency. GD osteoblasts were also defective in their ability to carry out Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, a lysosomal function that is necessary for bone matrix deposition. We conclude that normal GCase enzymatic activity is required for the differentiation and bone-forming activity of osteoblasts. Furthermore, the rescue of bone matrix deposition by pharmacological activation of Wnt/β catenin in GD osteoblasts uncovers a new therapeutic target for the treatment of bone abnormalities in GD.
Project description:Osteoblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that function as the major bone-producing cells of the body. Differentiation cues including ascorbic acid (AA) stimulation provoke intracellular changes in osteoblasts leading to the synthesis of the organic portion of the bone, which includes collagen type I ?1, proteoglycans, and matrix proteins, such as osteocalcin. During our microarray analysis of AA-stimulated osteoblasts, we observed a significant up-regulation of the microtubule (MT) plus-end binding protein, EB1, compared with undifferentiated osteoblasts. EB1 knockdown significantly impaired AA-induced osteoblast differentiation, as detected by reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Intracellular examination of AA-stimulated osteoblasts treated with EB1 siRNA revealed a reduction in MT stability with a concomitant loss of ?-catenin distribution at the cell cortex and within the nucleus. Diminished ?-catenin levels in EB1 siRNA-treated osteoblasts paralleled an increase in phospho-?-catenin and active glycogen synthase kinase 3?, a kinase known to target ?-catenin to the proteasome. EB1 siRNA treatment also reduced the expression of the ?-catenin gene targets, cyclin D1 and Runx2. Live immunofluorescent imaging of differentiated osteoblasts revealed a cortical association of EB1-mcherry with ?-catenin-GFP. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed an interaction between EB1 and ?-catenin. We also determined that cell-cell contacts and cortically associated EB1/?-catenin interactions are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. Finally, using functional blocking antibodies, we identified E-cadherin as a major contributor to the cell-cell contact-induced osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:During endochondral bone development, the first osteoblasts differentiate in the perichondrium surrounding avascular cartilaginous rudiments; the source of trabecular osteoblasts inside the later bone is, however, unknown. Here, we generated tamoxifen-inducible transgenic mice bred to Rosa26R-LacZ reporter mice to follow the fates of stage-selective subsets of osteoblast lineage cells. Pulse-chase studies showed that osterix-expressing osteoblast precursors, labeled in the perichondrium prior to vascular invasion of the cartilage, give rise to trabecular osteoblasts, osteocytes, and stromal cells inside the developing bone. Throughout the translocation, some precursors were found to intimately associate with invading blood vessels, in pericyte-like fashion. A similar coinvasion occurs during endochondral healing of bone fractures. In contrast, perichondrial mature osteoblasts did not exhibit perivascular localization and remained in the outer cortex of developing bones. These findings reveal the specific involvement of immature osteoblast precursors in the coupled vascular and osteogenic transformation essential to endochondral bone development and repair.
Project description:Dynamic interaction between prostate cancer and the bone microenvironment is a major contributor to metastasis of prostate cancer to bone. In this study, we utilized an in vitro co-culture model of PC3 prostate cancer cells and osteoblasts followed by microarray based gene expression profiling to identify previously unrecognized prostate cancer-bone microenvironment interactions. Factors secreted by PC3 cells resulted in the up-regulation of many genes in osteoblasts associated with bone metabolism and cancer metastasis, including Mmp13, Il-6 and Tgfb2, and down-regulation of Wnt inhibitor Sost. To determine whether altered Sost expression in the bone microenvironment has an effect on prostate cancer metastasis, we co-cultured PC3 cells with Sost knockout (Sost(KO)) osteoblasts and wildtype (WT) osteoblasts and identified several genes differentially regulated between PC3-Sost(KO) osteoblast co-cultures and PC3-WT osteoblast co-cultures. Co-culturing PC3 cells with WT osteoblasts up-regulated cancer-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 in PC3 cells. MALAT1 expression was further enhanced when PC3 cells were co-cultured with Sost(KO) osteoblasts and treatment with recombinant Sost down-regulated MALAT1 expression in these cells. Our results suggest that reduced Sost expression in the tumor microenvironment may promote bone metastasis by up-regulating MALAT1 in prostate cancer.
Project description:One of the potential contributing factors for iron overload-induced osteoporosis is the iron toxicity on bone forming cells, osteoblasts. In this study, the comparative effects of Fe3+ and Fe2+ on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were studied in UMR-106 osteoblast cells by using ferric ammonium citrate and ferrous ammonium sulfate as Fe3+ and Fe2+ donors, respectively. Effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and iron chelator deferiprone on iron uptake ability of osteoblasts were examined, and the potential protective ability of 1,25(OH)2D3, deferiprone and extracellular calcium treatment in osteoblast cell survival under iron overload was also elucidated. The differential effects of Fe3+ and Fe2+ on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoblasts were also compared. Our results showed that both iron species suppressed alkaline phosphatase gene expression and mineralization with the stronger effects from Fe3+ than Fe2+. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased the intracellular iron but minimally affected osteoblast cell survival under iron overload. Deferiprone markedly decreased intracellular iron in osteoblasts, but it could not recover iron-induced osteoblast cell death. Interestingly, extracellular calcium was able to rescue osteoblasts from iron-induced osteoblast cell death. Additionally, both iron species could induce ROS production and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in osteoblasts with the stronger effects from Fe3+. In conclusions, Fe3+ and Fe2+ differentially compromised the osteoblast functions and viability, which can be alleviated by an increase in extracellular ionized calcium, but not 1,25(OH)2D3 or iron chelator deferiprone. This study has provided the invaluable information for therapeutic design targeting specific iron specie(s) in iron overload-induced osteoporosis. Moreover, an increase in extracellular calcium could be beneficial for this group of patients.
Project description:Mature osteoblasts are the cells responsible for bone formation and are derived from precursor osteoblasts. However, the mechanisms that control this differentiation are poorly understood. In fact, unlike the majority of organs in the body, which are composed of "soft" tissue from which cells can easily be isolated and studied, the "hard" mineralized tissue of bone has made it difficult to study the function of bone cells. Here, we established an in vitro model that mimics this differentiation under physiological conditions. We obtained mature osteoblasts and characterized them on the basis of the following parameters: the strong expression of osteoblastic markers, such as Runx2 and Col-I; the achievement of specific dimensions (the cell volume increases 26-fold compared to the osteoblast precursors); and the production of an abundant extracellular matrix also called osteoid. We demonstrated that the differentiation of osteoblast precursors into mature osteoblasts requires the continuous activation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) receptors, which we established with the immobilization of a BMP-2mimetic peptide on a synthetic matrix mimicking in vivo microenvironment. Importantly, we demonstrated that the organization of the F-actin network and acetylated microtubules of the cells were modified during the differentiation process. We showed that the perturbation of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization abolished the differentiation process. In addition, we demonstrated that expression of the Runx2 gene is required for this differentiation. These findings demonstrate the retro-regulation of cytoplasmic and genic components due to the continuous induction of BMP-2 and also provide more detailed insights into the correct signaling of BMPs for cell differentiation in bone tissue.