Compare the knock-down effects of SLC2A11-MIF and two parent genes in Hela cell line
ABSTRACT: Total RNA were extracted from five knocking down treated Hela cells using siRNA targeting fusion gene SLCC2A11-MIF and parental genes To investigate the function of fusion gene and parental gene, we designed siRNAs specifically knocking down the fusion RNA SLC2A11-MIF and parental gene SLC2A11 respectively. Totally we have five samples. One sample is control, two siRNAs target parental genes and other two siRNAs target fusion genes. After 48hrs siRNA treatment, the RNAs were extracted from cells, and followed by RNA microarray. Overall design: one siRNA negative control, four siRNAs against SLC2A11, MIF, and SLCA211-MIF(two siRNAs)
Project description:siRNA-mediated knockdown of MIF expression in HEK293 cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progress. The microarray study of MIF KD cells reveald knockdown of MIF would lead to extensive changes in gene expression profiles which may elucidate the molecular mechanism of MIF siRNA-mediated inhibition of cell cycle and cell proliferation. Keywords: The whole-genome expression analysis in MIF knockdown cells and the control cells HEK293 cells were transfected MIF siRNA (50pmol/ml & 100pmol/ml) or control RNA using LipofectamineTM 2000 reagent and re-incubated for 24 hours.At the designed time point, totol RNA was isolated from the different treated cells.The normal cells were used as control.
Project description:siRNA-mediated knockdown of MIF expression in HEK293 cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progress. The microarray study of MIF KD cells reveald knockdown of MIF would lead to extensive changes in gene expression profiles which may elucidate the molecular mechanism of MIF siRNA-mediated inhibition of cell cycle and cell proliferation. Keywords: The whole-genome expression analysis in MIF knockdown cells and the control cells Overall design: HEK293 cells were transfected MIF siRNA (50pmol/ml & 100pmol/ml) or control RNA using LipofectamineTM 2000 reagent and re-incubated for 24 hours.At the designed time point, totol RNA was isolated from the different treated cells.The normal cells were used as control.
Project description:MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor [glycosylation-inhibiting factor]) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed in multiple cells types, including macrophages. MIF plays a pathogenic role in a number of inflammatory diseases and has been linked to tumor progression in some cancers. Previous work has demonstrated that loss of autophagy in macrophages enhances secretion of IL1 family cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that loss of autophagy, by pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of Atg5, enhances MIF secretion by monocytes and macrophages. We further demonstrate that this is dependent on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Induction of autophagy with MTOR inhibitors had no effect on MIF secretion, but amino acid starvation increased secretion. This was unaffected by Atg5 siRNA but was again dependent on mitochondrial ROS. Our data demonstrate that autophagic regulation of mitochondrial ROS plays a pivotal role in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages, with potential implications for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancers.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable cancer characterized by accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). The mechanism underlying MM homing to BM is poorly elucidated.The clinical significance of migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression was examined by analyzing six independent gene expression profile databases of primary MM cells using the Student's t test and Kaplan-Meier test. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine MIF expression. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to determine MM cell localization and treatment efficacy in human MM xenograft mouse models, with three to four mice per group. MM cell attachment to BM stromal cells (BMSCs) was monitored by cell adhesion assay. MIF regulation of the expression of adhesion molecules was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Statistical tests were two-sided.High levels of MIF were detected in MM BM (MIF level in BM plasma: healthy = 10.72 ± 5.788?ng/mL, n?=?5; MM?=?1811 ± 248.7?ng/mL, n?=?10; P < .001) and associated with poor survival of patients (Kaplan-Meier test for MM OS: 87 MIF(high) patients, 86 MIF(low) patients, P = .02). Knocking down MIF impaired MM cell adhesion to BMSCs in vitro and led to formation of extramedullary tumors in SCID mice. MIF acted through surface receptor CXCR4 and adaptor COPS5 to regulate the expression of adhesion molecules ALCAM, ITGAV, and ITGB5 on MM cells. More importantly, MIF-deficient MM cells were sensitive to chemotherapy in vitro when cocultured with BMSCs and in vivo. MIF inhibitor 4-IPP sensitized MM cells to chemotherapy.MIF is an important player and a novel therapeutic target in MM. Inhibiting MIF activity will sensitize MM cells to chemotherapy.
Project description:Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory and immunoregulatory chemokine, plays important roles in cancer-related biological processes. However, few studies have focused on the clinical relevance of MIF and cyclin D1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs). In this study, MIF and cyclin D1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines were significantly upregulated compared with adjacent normal tissues or a normal liver cell line. In HCC specimens, MIF expression positively correlated with cyclin D1 expression. Additionally, MIF and cyclin D1 expression positively correlated with tumor size. MIF knockdown inhibited the proliferation of PLC and HepG2 cells and promoted apoptosis. However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MIF did not influence the cell cycle in these cells. In an in vivo xenograft model, MIF knockdown reduced the tumor growth rate. The expression levels of Bcl-2, p-caspase-3, BIM and Bax were upregulated, while the expression levels of cyclin D1, p-Akt and p-ERK were downregulated in MIF-knockdown cells. These findings indicate that MIF siRNA reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis in HCC cells. MIF knockdown inhibits the expression of growth-related proteins and induces the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, supporting a role for MIF as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an innate cytokine whose main actions include counter-regulating the immunosuppressive action of glucocorticoids and inhibiting activation-induced apoptosis. MIF is encoded in a functionally polymorphic locus and human genetic studies have shown significant relationships between high-expression MIF alleles, host inflammatory responses, and improved clinical outcome from infections. A recently completed candidate gene association study in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) indicates that individuals with a high-expression MIF allele have reduced incidence of SLE. Among patients with established disease however, those with end-organ complications have increased frequency of high-expression MIF alleles. Plasma MIF levels and Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulated MIF production also reflect the underlying MIF genotype. These data suggest that MIF exerts a dual influence on the immunopathogenesis of SLE: high-expression MIF alleles are associated with a reduced susceptibility to SLE, perhaps by enhancing clearance of autoimmunogenic pathogens; once SLE develops however, low-expression MIF alleles protect from ensuing inflammatory end-organ damage. These data thus provide an example of the potential evolutionary advantage of maintaining an autoimmunity susceptibility gene in the population in that high-expression MIF alleles may allow for a maximal anti-infective response despite risk of autoimmunity. These results also support the clinical feasibility of pharmacologic MIF antagonism as such therapies may be most effectively applied in those individuals who, on the basis of their genotype, manifest a MIF dependent form of autoimmunity.
Project description:Cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (MIF-2 or D-dopachrome tautomerase) is a recently characterized second member of the MIF cytokine superfamily in mammalian genomes. MIF-2 shares pro-inflammatory and tumorigenic properties with the clinical target MIF (MIF-1), but the precise contribution of MIF-2 to immune physiology or pathology is unclear. Like MIF-1, MIF-2 has intrinsic keto-enol tautomerase activity and mediates biological functions by engaging the cognate, common MIF family receptor CD74. Evidence that the catalytic site of MIF family cytokines has a structural role in receptor binding has prompted exploration of tautomerase inhibitors as potential biological antagonists and therapeutic agents, although few catalytic inhibitors inhibit receptor activation. Here we describe the discovery and biochemical characterization of a selective small-molecule inhibitor of MIF-2. An in silico screen of 1.6 million compounds targeting the MIF-2 tautomerase site yielded several hits for potential catalytic inhibitors of MIF-2 and identified 4-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (4-CPPC) as the most functionally potent compound. We found that 4-CPPC has an enzymatic IC50 of 27 ?m and 17-fold selectivity for MIF-2 versus MIF-1. An in vitro binding assay for MIF-1/MIF-2 to the CD74 ectodomain (sCD74) indicated that 4-CPPC inhibits MIF-2-CD74 binding in a dose-dependent manner (0.01-10 ?m) without influencing MIF-1-CD74 binding. Notably, 4-CPPC inhibited MIF-2-mediated activation of CD74 and reduced CD74-dependent signal transduction. These results open opportunities for development of more potent and pharmacologically auspicious MIF-2 inhibitors to investigate the distinct functions of this MIF family member in vivo.
Project description:D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT) is a newly described cytokine and a member of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) protein superfamily. MIF is a broadly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates both the innate and the adaptive immune response. MIF activates the MAP kinase cascade, modulates cell migration, and counter-acts the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids. For many cell types, MIF also acts as an important survival or anti-apoptotic factor. Circulating MIF levels are elevated in the serum in different infectious and autoimmune diseases, and neutralization of the MIF protein via antibodies or small molecule antagonists improves the outcome in numerous animal models of human disease. Recently, a detailed investigation of the biological role of the closely homologous protein D-DT, which is encoded by a gene adjacent to MIF, revealed an overlapping functional spectrum with MIF. The D-DT protein also is present in most tissues and circulates in serum at similar concentrations as MIF. D-DT binds the MIF cell surface receptor complex, CD74/CD44, with high affinity and induces similar cell signaling and effector functions. Furthermore, an analysis of the signaling properties of the two proteins showed that they work cooperatively, and that neutralization of D-DT in vivo significantly decreases inflammation. In this review, we highlight the similarities and differences between MIF and D-DT, which we propose to designate "MIF-2", and discuss the implication of D-DT/MIF-2 expression for MIF-based therapies.
Project description:Fibroblast-like synoviocytes mediate joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis and exhibit sustained proinflammatory and invasive properties. CD44 is a polymorphic transmembrane protein with defined roles in matrix interaction and tumor invasion that is also a signaling coreceptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which engages cell surface CD74. High-expression MIF alleles (rs5844572) are associated with rheumatoid joint erosion, but whether MIF signaling through the CD74/CD44 receptor complex promotes upstream autoimmune responses or contributes directly to synovial joint destruction is unknown. We report here the functional regulation of CD44 by an autocrine pathway in synovial fibroblasts that is driven by high-expression MIF alleles to up-regulate an inflammatory and invasive phenotype. MIF increases CD44 expression, promotes its recruitment into a functional signal transduction complex, and stimulates alternative exon splicing, leading to expression of the CD44v3-v6 isoforms associated with oncogenic invasion. CD44 recruitment into the MIF receptor complex, downstream MAPK and RhoA signaling, and invasive phenotype require MIF and CD74 and are reduced by MIF pathway antagonists. These data support a functional role for high-MIF expression alleles and the two-component CD74/CD44 MIF receptor in rheumatoid arthritis and suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of this pathway may offer a specific means to interfere with progressive joint destruction.
Project description:Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are important tools for knocking down targeted genes, and have been widely applied to biological and biomedical research. To design siRNAs, two important aspects must be considered: the potency in knocking down target genes and the off-target effect on any nontarget genes. Although many studies have produced useful tools to design potent siRNAs, off-target prevention has mostly been delegated to sequence-level alignment tools such as BLAST. We hypothesize that whole-genome thermodynamic analysis can identify potential off-targets with higher precision and help us avoid siRNAs that may have strong off-target effects. To validate this hypothesis, two siRNA sets were designed to target three human genes IDH1, ITPR2 and TRIM28. They were selected from the output of two popular siRNA design tools, siDirect and siDesign. Both siRNA design tools have incorporated sequence-level screening to avoid off-targets, thus their output is believed to be optimal. However, one of the sets we tested has off-target genes predicted by Picky, a whole-genome thermodynamic analysis tool. Picky can identify off-target genes that may hybridize to a siRNA within a user-specified melting temperature range. Our experiments validated that some off-target genes predicted by Picky can indeed be inhibited by siRNAs. Similar experiments were performed using commercially available siRNAs and a few off-target genes were also found to be inhibited as predicted by Picky. In summary, we demonstrate that whole-genome thermodynamic analysis can identify off-target genes that are missed in sequence-level screening. Because Picky prediction is deterministic according to thermodynamics, if a siRNA candidate has no Picky predicted off-targets, it is unlikely to cause off-target effects. Therefore, we recommend including Picky as an additional screening step in siRNA design.