Circular RNA expression alteration in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)
ABSTRACT: To determine whether the expression levels of circular RNAs were altered and lay a foundation for future work, we used high-throughput microarray analysis to screen circular RNAs expression patterns in the spinal cord of adult rats after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), finally to evaluate the potential rat models as a platform for the development of novel therapeutic targets for spinal cord injury in future clinical studies. Overall six rats at 3 days post-SCI in two groups were used to perform the microarray. Overall design: Six rats were randomly assigned to two groups: rats in the sham control group (n=3) were treated with laminectomy alone without contusion; rats in the SCI group (n=3) were subjected to laminectomy plus contusion. Rats were anesthetized at 3 days post-SCI, and a 1cm long segment of spinal cord, including the injury epicenter, was dissected and collected for the experiment.
INSTRUMENT(S): 082778 Arraystar Rat CircRNA microarray V1
Project description:In the present study, we sought to understand the impact of obesity/metabolic disease (high-fat induced) on spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining transcriptome. Adult, male Long Evans rats received either thoracic level contusion of the spinal cord or sham laminectomy and then were allowed to recover on normal rat chow for 4 weeks and further on HFD for an additional 8 weeks. Spinal cord tissues harvested from the rats were processed for Affymetrix microarray and further transcriptomic analysis. Overall design: Male, Long Evans rats (400g) (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN) (N=10) werewere maintained on standard chow (#8640, Envigo, 3.0 kCal/g; 17% fat, 54% carbohydrate, 29% protein). Rats were assigned to either sham-laminectomy (Sham) or thoracic spinal cord injury (tSCI) group in a counterbalanced fashion based on body weight on the day prior to the start of surgery. Surgery was performed and animals were allowed to recover for 4 weeks following surgery. Rats were switched to a palatable, high-fat diet (HFD) (#D03082706, Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ, 4.54 kCal/g; 40% fat, 46% carbohydrate, 15% protein) for the remainder of the study totaling 8 weeks.
Project description:The aneurysm clip impact-compression model of spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals mimics the primary mechanism of SCI in human, i.e. acute impact and persisting compression; and its histo-pathological and behavioural outcomes are extensively similar to the human SCI. In order to understand the distinct molecular events underlying this injury model, an analysis of global gene expression of the acute, subacute and chronic stages of a moderate to severe injury to the rat spinal cord was conducted using a microarray gene chip approach. Rat thoracic spinal cord (T7) was injured using aneurysm clip impact-compression injury model and the epicenter area of injured spinal cord was isolated for RNA extraction and processing and hybridization on Affymetrix GeneChip arrays.
Project description:T cells undergo autoimmunization following spinal cord injury (SCI) and play both protective and destructive roles during the recovery process. T-cell deficient athymic nude (AN) rats recover better than immunocompetent Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats following spinal cord transection. In the present study, we evaluated locomotor recovery in SD and AN rats following moderate spinal cord contusion. To explain variable locomotor outcome, we assessed whole-genome expression using RNA sequencing, in the acute (1 week post-injury) and chronic (8 weeks post-injury) phases of recovery. AN rats demonstrated greater locomotor function than SD rats only at 1 week post-injury, coinciding with peak T cell infiltration in immunocompetent rats. Genetic markers for T cells and helper T cells were acutely enriched in SD rats, while AN rats expressed genes for Th2 cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, mast cells, IL-1a, and IL-6 at higher levels. Acute enrichment of cell death-related genes suggested that SD rats undergo secondary tissue damage from T cells. Additionally, SD rats exhibited increased acute expression of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-related genes. However, AN rats demonstrated greater chronic expression of cell death-associated genes and less expression of axon-related genes. We put forth a model in which T cells facilitate early tissue damage, demyelination, and Kv channel dysregulation in SD rats following contusion SCI. However, compensatory features of the immune response in AN rats cause delayed tissue death and limit long-term recovery. T cell inhibition combined with other neuroprotective treatment may thus be a promising therapeutic avenue. 2x2 model with 4 groups and 12 total samples. 2 rat strains (athymic nude [AN] and Sprague-Dawley [SD]) and 2 time points (1 week post-injury [acute] and 8 weeks post-injury [chronic]). 3 samples per group, for a total of 12 samples. No technical replicates were performed. Acute SD group = rats 618, 619, and 620. Chronic SD group = rats 605, 606, and 608. Acute AN group = rats 714, 715, and 717. Chronic AN group = rats 707, 712, and 713.
Project description:We have previously shown that Il1a-knockout (KO) mice exhibit rapid (at day 1) and persistent improvements in locomotion associated with reduced lesion volume compared with Il1b-KO mice and C57BL/6 controls after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To investigate the mechanism by which Il1a mediates its detrimental effect, we analyzed the transcriptome of the injured spinal cord of Il1a-KO, Il1b-KO and C57BL/6 mice at 24 hours after SCI using GeneChip microarrays. Il1a-KO, Il1b-KO and C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a 50-kdyn SCI and a 6-mm spinal cord segment centered over the site of contusion extracted for RNA isolation and microarray analysis.
Project description:Excerpt from a larger study which characterized the transcriptional effects of a spinal cord contusion injury in rats. This is the data from the almost chronic contusion state (35 days) at the injury site (Thoracic 8) - where we saw significant changes in several areas, including cholesterol metabolism genes. Other spinal cord areas (rostral, caudal) and time-points (3 hours, 24 hours, 7 days and 35 days) were analyzed as well and are discussed in our paper and at www.crpf.org/microarray.
Project description:Gene expression analysis after the treatments for functional recovery after contusion injury which are mediated by glutathione Experiment Overall Design: 24 hours after contusion and treatments Experiment Overall Design: Groups include normal, laminectomy, contusion and treatments on contused rats (clenbuterol, X-ray, tempol, BSO and tempol/BSO)
Project description:Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates a complex series of pathophysiological secondary responses that lead to tissue loss and functional deficits.This study represents a comprehensive database of temporal changes in gene expression that underlie the secondary injury response that occurs in a well-defined mouse model of contusion injury. Experiment Overall Design: Global changes in gene expression that contribute to secondary injury in a C57BL6 mouse model of contusion injury were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays.Mice were subjected to a moderate injury at the T8 spinal segment under isoflurane anesthesia.Sections of cord (0.4 cm in length) were analyzed from the site of impact and from the immediately adjacent rostral and caudal regions at 0.5, 4, 24, 72 h and 7 and 28 days after injury (n=3/per group), sham-injury (n=2 per group), or from naive mice (n=2). Four mice were pooled for each individual n, for a total of 12 mice for each injury time point.
Project description:Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) is often characterized by paralysis, spasticity and pain. Previously, we showed that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the albumin-oleic acid (A-OA) complex in rats with SCI produced partial improvement of these symptoms and that oral 2-hydroxyoleic acid (HOA), a non-hydrolyzable OA analogue), was efficacious in the modulation and treatment of nociception and pain-related anxiety, respectively. Here we observed that intrathecal treatment with the complex albumin-HOA (A-HOA) every 3 days following T9 spinal contusion injury promoted significant recovery in locomotor function and marked an inhibition of TA noxious reflex activity (i.e., nociception) in Wistar rats. To investigate the mechanism of action of A-HOA, microarray analysis was carried out in the spinal cord lesion area. Representative genes involved in pain and neuroregeneration were selected to validate the changes observed in the microarray analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Comparison of the expression between healthy rats, SCI rats, and SCI treated with A-HOA rats revealed relevant changes in the expression of genes associated with neuronal morphogenesis and growth, neuronal survival, pain and inflammation. Thus, treatment with A-HOA not only induced a significant overexpression of growth and differentiation factor 10 (GDF10), tenascin C (TNC), aspirin (ASPN) and sushi-repeat-containing X-linked 2 (SRPX2), but also a significant reduction in the expression of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) and phospholipases A1 and A2 (PLA1/2). Currently, SCI has very important unmet clinical needs. A-HOA proved to downregulate genes involved in inflammation and upregulate genes involved in neuron growth, which balanced the important body response to medular lesion and allowed recovery from paralysis and pain. Overall design: We use four different animals for each experimental group which were extracted and processed separately
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most disabling health problems facing adults today. Locomotor training has been shown to induce substantial recovery in muscle size and muscle function in both transected and contusion injury animal models of SCI. The overall objective of this study is to implement genome wide expression profiling of skeletal muscle to define the molecular pathways associated with muscle remodeling after SCI and during locomotor training (TM). We profiled rat soleus of total 36 samples including controls; 3, 8 and 14 days after SCI; 8 and 14 days after SCI with locomotor treadmill training (TM).