IL-12 and IL-23 dependent gene induction in purified CD19+, CD8+, CD4+, gdTCR+ and CD56+ cells
ABSTRACT: The aim of this experiment was to study IL-12 and IL-23 dependent gene induction in different immune cell types in order to assess where these two pathways converge and diverge Overall design: CD19+, CD8+, CD4+, gdTCR+ and CD56+ cells were purified by MACS or sorting and stimulated with IL-12 (20ng/ml) or IL-23 (100ng/ml)
INSTRUMENT(S): [HTA-2_0] Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 [transcript (gene) version]
Project description:Interleukin 23 (IL-23) triggers pathogenic features in pro-inflammatory, IL-17-secreting T cells (Th17 and Tγδ17) that play a key role in the development of inflammatory diseases. However, the IL-23 signaling cascade remains largely undefined. Here we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to characterize IL-23 signaling in primary murine Th17 cells. We quantified 6,888 phosphorylation sites in Th17 cells, and found 168 phosphorylations regulated upom IL-23 stimulation. IL-23 increased the phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), an actomyosin contractibility marker, in Th17 and Tγδ cells. IL-23-induced RLC phosphorylation required JAK2 and ROCK catalytic activity, and the study of the IL-23/ROCK axis revealed an unexpected role of IL-23 in the migration of Tγδ17 and Th17 cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK reduced Tγδ17 recruitment to inflamed skin upon challenge with inflammatory agent Imiquimod. This work: i) provides new insights into phosphorylation networks that control Th17 cells, ii) widely expands the current knowledge on IL-23 signaling, and iii) contributes to the increasing list of immune cells subsets characterized by global phosphoproteomic approaches.
Project description:Cryopreserved human PBMCs from six donors were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 beads in the presence or absence of 100ng/ml IL-23 for 22 hours. RNA samples were assessed for consistency with a Bioanalyzer (Agilent) and quantified by a Nanodrop® ND 1000 Spectrophotometer (Nanodrop Technologies, USA). Expression array data was quantile normalised, detection above background statistical testing performed, comparison between activated un-stimulated versus activated IL-23 stimulated conditions performed as a paired test using the Illumina Custom differential expression algorithm (all implemented in Illumina BeadStudio GeneExpression Module v3.2). Two sample groups were compared, each with 6 biological replicates. Group 1 was stimulated with CD3CD28 antibody coated beads as a control group for 22hours. Group 2 was stimulated as the control group and treated with IL-23 100ng/ml for the same time period. Keywords: Cytokine Treatment Overall design: Genome wide association studies have recently identified common risk variants in IL23R, encoding a subunit of the heterodimeric interleukin-23 receptor, associated with Crohn’s disease, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. IL-23 is a critical cytokine for the development of pathogenic TH17 cells, and drives intestinal and dermal inflammation in animal models. The influence of IL23R genetic variation on human immune responses is not known. Here, we have correlated disease associated IL23R genotypes (for nine markers reaching genome wide significance in the initial Crohn’s disease report) with responses to IL-23 in anti-CD3/CD28 activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 genotyped healthy donors. IL-23 stimulation induced leucocyte IL-10 secretion and IL17F mRNA expression. Leucocytes of IL23R rs11209032 AG genotype had higher IL-23 stimulated IL-10 secretion (P=0.00030) and IL17F mRNA expression (P=0.026) than those of GG genotype. Lower IL23R mRNA expression (P=0.046) was observed by quantitative PCR assay in leucocytes of GG genotype. Disease associated IL23R variants lead to gain of function in human cells, by a mechanism involving increased IL23R expression, suggesting novel therapeutic strategies should aim to block IL-23 receptor signalling.
Project description:Interleukin-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 are cytokines currently being targeted in clinical trials. Although inhibition of these cytokines is effective for treating psoriasis, IL-12/23 inhibition attenuates Crohn's disease, while IL-17A or IL-17RA inhibition exacerbates disease. This dichotomy between IL-23 and IL-17 was effectively modeled in the mdr1a- /- mouse model of colitis. IL-23 inhibition attenuated disease by decreasing colonic inflammation while enhancing Treg accumulation. Exacerbation of colitis by IL-17A or IL-17RA inhibition was associated with severe weakening of the intestinal epithelial barrier, culminating in increased colonic inflammation and accelerated mortality. These data show that IL-17A acts on intestinal epithelium to promote barrier function and provides insight into mechanisms underlying exacerbation of Crohn's disease when IL-17A or IL-17RA is inhibited. Overall design: Mdr1a-deficient mice were infected with Helicobacter bilis to induce colitis and the role of different cytokines in disease compared by treatment with blocking antibodies. To that end, H. bilis-infected mice were treated with IL-23-, IL-23-/12- and IL-17RA-blocking antibodies and isotype control antibody and PBS control as well as an uninfected group in experiment 1. In a second experiment, H. bilis-infected mice were treated with IL-17A- and IL-17RA-blocking antibodies, isotype control antibody and PBS control as well as an uninfected group. Total RNA was extracted from the colon of each mouse and Affymetrix microarray profiles of each cytokine-blocking antibody group compared to control groups to understand the different effects of inhibiting IL-17A, IL-23, IL-23/12 and IL-17RA in this model of colitis. There were 3 to 5 mice in each antibody treatment group for a total of 42 samples across the 2 studies.
Project description:Human Tregs isolated from PBMCs were cultured in the absence or presence of IL-12 (20ng/ml) for four days and were performed mRNA-seq. Overall design: mRNA profiles of human Treg stimulated with IL-12 (Th1 condition)
Project description:A small subset of T cells also expresses kiler-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). We find that KIR+ T cells primarily reside in the CD56+ T population. However, little is known on how these cells are different from the conventional CD56- T, NK, and iNKT cells. We used microarray profiling to compare and determine the distinctive differences of CD56+ T cell and its KIR subsets when compared to the conventional CD56- T, NK and iNKT cells. Lymphocyte subsets were sorted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with FACSAriaII (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) using anti-CD3, anti-CD56, anti-CD14, anti-KIR2DL1, anti-KIR2DL2/3, anti-KIR3DL1 and anti-TCRValpha24 antibodies. The purity of CD3+CD56- T cells, CD3-CD56+ NK cells, CD3+CD56+ T cells, KIR-CD3+CD56+ T cells, and KIR+CD3+CD56+ T cells were more than 98% in all experiments. The purities of iNKT cells for TCRValpha24 and CD1d-tetramer were >95% and >90%, respectively. RNA pre-amplification, labeling and hybridization on Human Genome U133Plus 2.0 GeneChip array were performed in the St. Jude Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics & Biotechnology microarray core facility according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA).
Project description:We used Affymetrix expression arrays to determine changes in gene expression associated with activation of human NK cells mediated through treatment with cytokines IL-2, IL-12 and IL-18 over a 24 hour period. Human natural killer cells were isolated via negative selection from PBMCs of healthy donors. Cells were found to be > 95% CD3-CD56+. RNA was harvested at time of isolation or after 24 hour stimulation from 8 x 10^6 cells per condition. For stimulations, cells were incubated at 37C (5% CO2) in RPMI, suuplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum at 1.5 x 10^6 cells/ml. Cytokine stimualtions were conducted with IL-2 (100U/mL), IL-12 (10ng/mL) and IL-18 (100ng/mL) from 2 male donors (N = 4). Expression analysis was carried out to determine transcriptional changes associated with 24 hr stimulation relative to freshly isolated cells.
Project description:We used Affymetrix expression arrays to determine changes in gene expression associated with activation of human NK cells mediated through treatment with cytokines IL-2, IL-12 and IL-18 over a 24 hour period. Overall design: Human natural killer cells were isolated via negative selection from PBMCs of healthy donors. Cells were found to be > 95% CD3-CD56+. RNA was harvested at time of isolation or after 24 hour stimulation from 8 x 10^6 cells per condition. For stimulations, cells were incubated at 37C (5% CO2) in RPMI, suuplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum at 1.5 x 10^6 cells/ml. Cytokine stimualtions were conducted with IL-2 (100U/mL), IL-12 (10ng/mL) and IL-18 (100ng/mL) from 2 male donors (N = 4). Expression analysis was carried out to determine transcriptional changes associated with 24 hr stimulation relative to freshly isolated cells.
Project description:Innate immune responses must be regulated in the intestine to prevent excessive inflammation. Here, using gene reporter mice, we show that a subset of mouse colonic macrophages constitutively produced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium, which is considered similar to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection in humans, macrophage IL-10 was required to prevent intestinal pathology and to promote survival. The synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 was significantly increased in infected mice with a myeloid cell specific deletion of IL-10 and the addition of IL-10 reduced in vitro IL-23 production by intestinal macrophages. Furthermore, blockade of IL-23 led to reduced morbidity and mortality in the context of macrophage IL-10 deficiency. Transcriptome analysis indicated that the reporter positive and negative colonic macrophage subsets were highly similar, but the reporter positive cells differed for the expression of CD163, an IL-10 target gene, suggesting an autocrine IL-10 signal, and when obtained from infected mice, they had reduced IL-23p19 mRNA. Interestingly, only transfer of the reporter positive cells could rescue IL-10 deficient infected mice. Therefore, these data indicate a pivotal role for a subset of intestinal macrophages that constitutively produces IL-10, perhaps acting in part in autocrine fashion, in controlling excessive innate immune activation, regulation of IL-23 production, and prevention of tissue damage after an acute bacterial infection in the intestine. Two replicates each of IL10+ and IL10- large intestinal macrophages. Data were normalized with the 'rma' function of the Bioconductor package, along with several GEO (GSM616132, GSM616136, GSM616140, GSM868296, GSM868297, GSM868298) and ArrayExpress (E-MEXP-3216: 04-M2WT, 05-M2WT, 06-M2WT) datasets.
Project description:In this study we aim to determine the role of IL-4/STAT6 in gene expression in human keratinocytes using RNA-sequencing approach. Human keratinocytes were cultured for 2 or 5 days with calcium chloride to induce terminal differentiation as determined by the expression of epidermal differentiation complex genes. The cells were then stimulated with IL-4 for 3 and 24 hours, or along the 5 days culture period. We observed that IL-4 inhibits fully differentiation of keratinocytes, induces genes involved with production of inflammatory mediators, and reduces the healing capacity of human keratinocytes. Moreover, STAT6 controlled important genes involved with calcium binding, inflammation and epidermis development. Human keratinocytes were differentiated with calcium chloride for 2 days and incubated with media alone or 20ng/ml of recombinant human IL-4 for 3 and 24 hours. Human keratinocytes were differentiated with calcium chloride for 5 days with or wihout recombinant human IL-4 (20ng/ml). Keratinocytes transfected with control or STAT6 siRNA were differentiated with calcium chloride for 2 days and then stimulated with recombinant huma IL-4 for 24 hours.
Project description:We performed a PCR array of 84 ECM-related genes using RNA obtained from dermal fibroblasts stimulated presence or absence of IL-12, IL-23 or IL-27. The effects of IL-12, -23 or -27 on COL1A2 mRNA expression were less than 2-fold, as compared with untreated cells. Overall design: In this study, we examined the involvement of the IL-12, IL-23 or IL-27 in the expression of the extracellular matrix.