ABSTRACT: We identify a subset of IL-33 expressing adventitial stromal cells as local regulators of ILC2s Type 2 lymphocytes promote both physiologic tissue remodeling and allergic pathology, yet their physical tissue niches are poorly described. In this study, we used quantitative imaging together with scRNAseq to define tissue niches of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), critical instigators of type 2 immunity. We identified a dominant adventitial cuff niche around lung bronchi and larger vessels in multiple tissues, where ILC2s localized with subsets of dendritic and regulatory T cells. However, ILC2s were most intimately associated with adventitial stromal cells (ASC), a mesenchymal fibroblast-like subset that expressed Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and supported ILC2s and tissue-resident Th2 cells. Overall design: Analysis of CD45- stromal cells in lung and adipose tissue
Project description:Type 2 lymphocytes promote both physiologic tissue remodeling and allergic pathology, yet their physical tissue niches are poorly described. Here, we used quantitative imaging to define the tissue niches of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which are critical instigators of type 2 immunity. We identified a dominant adventitial niche around lung bronchi and larger vessels in multiple tissues, where ILC2s localized with subsets of dendritic and regulatory T cells. However, ILC2s were most intimately associated with adventitial stromal cells (ASCs), a mesenchymal fibroblast-like subset that expresses interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). In vitro, ASCs produced TSLP that supported ILC2 accumulation and activation. ILC2s and IL-13 drove reciprocal ASC expansion and IL-33 expression. During helminth infection, ASC depletion impaired lung ILC2 and Th2 cell accumulation and function, which are in part dependent on ASC-derived IL-33. These data indicate that adventitial niches are conserved sites where ASCs regulate type 2 lymphocyte expansion and function.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are distributed systemically and produce type 2 cytokines in response to a variety of stimuli, including the epithelial cytokines interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Transcriptional profiling of ILC2s from different tissues, however, grouped ILC2s according to their tissue of origin, even in the setting of combined IL-25-, IL-33-receptor-, and TSLP-receptor-deficiency. Single-cell profiling confirmed a tissue-organizing transcriptome and identified ILC2 subsets expressing distinct activating receptors, including the major subset of skin ILC2s, which were activated preferentially by IL-18. Tissue ILC2 subsets were unaltered in number and expression in germ-free mice, suggesting that endogenous, tissue-derived signals drive the maturation of ILC2 subsets by controlling expression of distinct patterns of activating receptors, thus anticipating tissue-specific perturbations occurring later in life.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and CD4+ type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) are defined by their similar effector cytokines, which together mediate the features of allergic immunity. We found that tissue ILC2s and TH2 cells differentiated independently but shared overlapping effector function programs that were mediated by exposure to the tissue-derived cytokines interleukin 25 (IL-25), IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Loss of these three tissue signals did not affect lymph node priming, but abrogated the terminal differentiation of effector TH2 cells and adaptive lung inflammation in a T cell-intrinsic manner. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which diverse perturbations can activate type 2 immunity and reveal a shared local-tissue-elicited checkpoint that can be exploited to control both innate and adaptive allergic inflammation.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert powerful effects on immunity through coordinate regulation of multiple target genes in a wide variety of cells. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are tissue sentinel mediators of allergic inflammation. We established the physiological requirements for miRNAs in ILC2 homeostasis and immune function and compared the global miRNA repertoire of resting and activated ILC2s and T helper type 2 (TH2) cells. After exposure to the natural allergen papain, mice selectively lacking the miR-17?92 cluster in ILC2s displayed reduced lung inflammation. Moreover, miR-17?92-deficient ILC2s exhibited defective growth and cytokine expression in response to IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin in vitro. The miR-17?92 cluster member miR-19a promoted IL-13 and IL-5 production and inhibited expression of several targets, including SOCS1 and A20, signaling inhibitors that limit IL-13 and IL-5 production. These findings establish miRNAs as important regulators of ILC2 biology, reveal overlapping but nonidentical miRNA-regulated gene expression networks in ILC2s and TH2 cells, and reinforce the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-19 to alleviate pathogenic allergic responses.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have an important role in acute allergic lung inflammation. Given their distribution and function, lung ILC2s are hypothesized to coordinate epithelial responses to the external environment; however, how barrier surveillance is linked to ILC2 activation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that alveolar type II cells are the main source of interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) generated in response to chitin or migratory helminths. IL-33 and TSLP synergistically induce an interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)-IL-9 program in ILC2s, and autocrine IL-9 promotes rapid IL-5 and IL-13 production required for optimal epithelial responses in the conducting airways. Thus, ILC2s link alveolar function to regulation of airway flow, revealing a key interaction between resident lymphoid and structural cells that might underlie similar organizational hierarchies in other organs.
Project description:Chitin, a polysaccharide constituent of many allergens and parasites, initiates innate type 2 lung inflammation through incompletely defined pathways. We show that inhaled chitin induced expression of three epithelial cytokines, interleukin-25 (IL-25), IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which nonredundantly activated resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) to express IL-5 and IL-13 necessary for accumulation of eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). In the absence of all three epithelial cytokines, ILC2s normally populated the lung but failed to increase IL-5 and IL-13. Although eosinophils and AAMs were attenuated, neutrophil influx remained normal without these epithelial cytokines. Genetic ablation of ILC2s, however, enhanced IL-1?, TNF?, and IL-23 expression, increased activation of IL-17A-producing ?? T cells, and prolonged neutrophil influx. Thus, chitin elicited patterns of innate cytokines that targeted distinct populations of resident lymphoid cells, revealing divergent but interacting pathways underlying the tissue accumulation of specific types of inflammatory myeloid cells.
Project description:Airway epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-33 can enhance lung-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), and they play an important role in the development of allergic diseases. This study tests the hypothesis that Der f 31 (Dermatophagoides farinae-31), an allergen, modulates airway epithelial cell functions and increases the frequency of lung ILC2s. Our previous research identified cofilin (Der f 31) as a novel allergen. In this study, we found that recombinant Der f 31 (r-Der f 31) upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs and promoted Th2-skewed polarization. The levels of TSLP and IL-33 in epithelial cells were upregulated by r-Der f 31 via the activation of Toll-like receptor 2. Furthermore, in in vivo studies, r-Der f 31 induced eosinophil-like airway allergy and increased the number of lung-resident ILC2s. In summary, Der f 31 can modulate the functions of airway epithelial cells and increase levels of lung-resident ILC2s.
Project description:In mice, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) likely mediate helminth immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair and remodeling. However, the involvement of ILC2s in human diseases, such as asthma, is not well understood.The goals of this study were to investigate whether peripheral blood specimens can be used to monitor innate type 2 immunity in human subjects and to examine whether ILC2s are involved in human asthma.PBMCs from subjects with allergic asthma (AA), subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR), or healthy control (HC) subjects were cultured in vitro with IL-25 or IL-33. Flow cytometry and cell sorting were used to identify, isolate, and quantitate ILC2s in PBMCs.Human PBMCs produced IL-5 and IL-13 when stimulated with IL-33 or IL-25 in the presence of IL-2 without antigens. In addition, IL-7 or thymic stromal lymphopoietin were able to replace IL-2. The cell population with phenotypic ILC2 characteristics, lineage(-)CD127(+)CRTH2(+) cells, responded to IL-33 and produced large quantities of IL-5 and IL-13 but undetectable levels of IL-4. PBMCs from subjects with AA produced significantly larger amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to IL-25 or IL-33 than from subjects with AR or HC. The prevalence of ILC2s in blood was greater in the AA group than in the AR group or the HC group.Innate type 2 immune responses are increased in asthma but not in AR, suggesting potential differences in the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. Peripheral blood is useful for evaluating innate type 2 immunity in humans.
Project description:Pericytes and other perivascular stem/stromal cells are of growing interest in the field of tissue engineering. A portion of perivascular cells are well recognized to have MSC (mesenchymal stem cell) characteristics, including multipotentiality, self-renewal, immunoregulatory functions, and diverse roles in tissue repair. Here, we investigate the differential but overlapping roles of two perivascular cell subsets in paracrine induction of bone repair. CD146+CD34-CD31-CD45-pericytes and CD34+CD146-CD31-CD45-adventitial cells were derived from human adipose tissue and applied alone or in combination to calvarial bone defects in mice. In vitro, osteogenic differentiation and tubulogenesis assays were performed using either fluorescence activated cell sorting-derived CD146+ pericytes or CD34+ adventitial cells. Results showed that CD146+ pericytes induced increased cord formation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo in comparison with patient-matched CD34+ adventitial cells. In contrast, CD34+ adventitial cells demonstrated heightened paracrine-induced osteogenesis in vitro. When applied in a critical-size calvarial defect model in NOD/SCID mice, the combination treatment of CD146+ pericytes with CD34+ adventitial cells led to greater re-ossification than either cell type alone. In summary, adipose-derived CD146+ pericytes and CD34+ adventitial cells display functionally distinct yet overlapping and complementary roles in bone defect repair. Consequently, CD146+ pericytes and CD34+ adventitial cells may demonstrate synergistic bone healing when applied as a combination cellular therapy.