Nut/Hos1 and Sas2/Rpd3 control H3 acetylation of two different sets of osmotic stress-induced genes
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic information is able to interact with the cellular environment and therefore it could be especially useful for reprogramming gene expression in response to a physiological perturbation. In fact, genes induced or repressed by osmotic stress undergo significant changes in the levels of various histone modifications, especially the acetylation levels of histone H3. Exposure of yeast to high osmolarity results in the activation of p38-related SAPK, Hog1, which plays a central role in the control of gene expression. Therefore, two types of mechanisms converge in gene regulation by stress: that of the epigenetic signals and that of the trans-acting protein factor. We have evaluated the connection between the presence of Hog1 and the changes on acetylation of histone H3 in stress-regulated genes. Furthermore, we asked which enzymatic activities are involved in the changes produced in the acetylation of H3 linked to gene activation by osmotic stress. We have demonstrated that increase of acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 of H3 produced on induced genes during stress positively correlates between them and are largely dependent on Hog1 at genome-wide level. Conversely, decrease in acetylation on repressed genes was not dependent on Hog1. However, the absence of Hog1 produces different and even opposite effects on the induction and acetylation of H3 of each gene, which suggests that Hog1 influences both processes through different mechanisms. Additionally, we found that in genes up-regulated during osmotic stress in a Msn2/Msn4-independent manner, the state of acetylation of lysine 9 of H3 was altered in strains deficient in Nut1 HAT and Hos1 HDAC; meanwhile for Msn2/Msn4-dependent induced genes H3k9 acetylation varies in strains deficient in Sas2 HAT and Rpd3 HDAC. During induction by osmotic stress at least two different mechanism act on H3k9 acetylation of two differentiated set of induced genes, one of them would act through Nut1/Hos1, while the other through Sas2/Rpd3. The results presented here show new and unexpected participants in the process of the regulation of gene in response to environmental perturbations. Overall design: Histone H3 acetylation at lysines K9 and K14 respect signal for total H3 protein, both measured by ChIP, in wt (BY4742) and hog1delta yeast cells under non-stress and 10 min of 0.4 M NaCl treatment. One replica experiment. The hog1Δ data obtained in this study was compared to the wild type data obtained by Magraner-Pardo et al., 2014 (GSE41587).
Project description:Epigenetic information is able to interact with the cellular environment and could be especially useful for reprograming gene expression in response to a physiological perturbation. In fact the genes induced or repressed by osmotic stress undergo significant changes in terms of the levels of various histone modifications, especially in the acetylation levels of histone H3. Exposing yeast to high osmolarity results in the activation of stress-activated protein kinase Hog1, which plays a central role in gene expression control. We evaluated the connection between the presence of Hog1 and changes in histone H3 acetylation in stress-regulated genes. We found a parallel increase in the acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 of H3 in induced genes during stress, which was largely dependent on Hog1 at the genome-wide level. Conversely, we observed that acetylation decreased in repressed genes and was not dependent on Hog1. However, lack of Hog1 sometimes produced different, and even opposite, effects on the induction and acetylation of H3 of each gene. We also found that the acetylation state of lysine 9 of H3 was altered in the strains deficient in Nut1 HAT and Hos1 HDAC in the genes up-regulated during osmotic stress in an Msn2/Msn4-independent manner, while lysine 9 acetylation of H3 varied in the strains deficient in Sas2 HAT and Rpd3 HDAC for the Msn2/Msn4-dependent induced genes. The results presented here show new, unexpected participants in gene regulation processes in response to environmental perturbations.
Project description:We have identified Cdc55, a regulatory B subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), as an essential activating factor for stress gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of PP2A-Cdc55 is required for full activation of the environmental stress response mediated by the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. We show that PP2A-Cdc55 contributes to sustained nuclear accumulation of Msn2 and Msn4 during hyperosmolarity stress. PP2A-Cdc55 also enhances Msn2-dependent transactivation, required for extended chromatin recruitment of the transcription factor. We analyzed a possible direct regulatory role for PP2A-Cdc55 on the phosphorylation status of Msn2. Detailed mass spectrometric and genetic analysis of Msn2 showed that stress exposure causes immediate transient dephosphorylation of Msn2 which is not dependent on PP2A-Cdc55 activity. Furthermore, the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activity is not influenced by PP2A-Cdc55. We therefore propose that the PP2A-Cdc55 phosphatase is not involved in cytosolic stress signal perception but is involved in a specific intranuclear mechanism to regulate Msn2 and Msn4 nuclear accumulation and chromatin association under stress conditions.
Project description:Exposure of yeast to high osmolarity induces a transient activation of the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), which is required for cell survival under these conditions. However, sustained activation of the SAPK results in a severe growth defect. We found that prolonged SAPK activation leads to cell death, which is not observed in nma111 cells, by causing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mutations of the SCF(CDC4) ubiquitin ligase complex suppress cell death by preventing the degradation of Msn2 and Msn4 transcription factors. Accumulation of Msn2 and Msn4 leads to the induction of PNC1, which is an activator of the Sir2 histone acetylase. Sir2 is involved in protection against Hog1-induced cell death and can suppress Hog1-induced ROS accumulation. Therefore, cell death seems to be dictated by the balance of ROS induced by Hog1 and the protective effect of Sir2.
Project description:Signal transmission progresses via a series of transient protein-protein interactions and protein movements, which require diffusion within a cell packed with different molecules. Yeast Hog1, the effector protein kinase of the High Osmolarity Glycerol pathway, translocates transiently from the cytosol to the nucleus during adaptation to high external osmolarity. We followed the dynamics of osmostress-induced cell volume loss and Hog1 nuclear accumulation upon exposure of cells to different NaCl concentrations. While Hog1 nuclear accumulation peaked within five minutes following mild osmotic shock it was delayed up to six-fold under severe stress. The timing of Hog1 nuclear accumulation correlated with the degree of cell volume loss and the cells capacity to recover. Also the nuclear translocation of Msn2, the transcription factor of the general stress response pathway, is delayed upon severe osmotic stress suggesting a general phenomenon. We show by direct measurements that the general diffusion rate of Hog1 in the cytoplasm as well as its rate of nuclear transport are dramatically reduced following severe volume reduction. However, neither Hog1 phosphorylation nor Msn2 nuclear translocation were as much delayed as Hog1 nuclear translocation. Our data provide direct evidence that signaling slows down during cell volume compression, probably as a consequence of molecular crowding. Hence one purpose of osmotic adaptation is to restore optimal diffusion rates for biochemical and cell biological processes. In addition, there may be mechanisms slowing down especially Hog1 nuclear translocation under severe stress in order to prioritize Hog1 cytosolic targets.
Project description:Cells modulate expression of nuclear genes in response to alterations in mitochondrial function, a response termed retrograde (RTG) regulation. In budding yeast, the RTG pathway relies on Rtg1 and Rtg3 basic helix-loop-helix leucine Zipper transcription factors. Exposure of yeast to external hyperosmolarity activates the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), which is a key player in the regulation of gene expression upon stress. Several transcription factors, including Sko1, Hot1, the redundant Msn2 and Msn4, and Smp1, have been shown to be directly controlled by the Hog1 SAPK. The mechanisms by which Hog1 regulates their activity differ from one to another. In this paper, we show that Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors are new targets of the Hog1 SAPK. In response to osmostress, RTG-dependent genes are induced in a Hog1-dependent manner, and Hog1 is required for Rtg1/3 complex nuclear accumulation. In addition, Hog1 activity regulates Rtg1/3 binding to chromatin and transcriptional activity. Therefore Hog1 modulates Rtg1/3 complex activity by multiple mechanisms in response to stress. Overall our data suggest that Hog1, through activation of the RTG pathway, contributes to ensure mitochondrial function as part of the Hog1-mediated osmoadaptive response.
Project description:Increased histone acetylation has been correlated with increased transcription, and regions of heterochromatin are generally hypoacetylated. In investigating the cause-and-effect relationship between histone acetylation and gene activity, we have characterized two yeast histone deacetylase complexes. Histone deacetylase-A (HDA) is an approximately 350-kDa complex that is highly sensitive to the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Histone deacetylase-B (HDB) is an approximately 600-kDa complex that is much less sensitive to trichostatin A. The HDA1 protein (a subunit of the HDA activity) shares sequence similarity to RPD3, a factor required for optimal transcription of certain yeast genes. RPD3 is associated with the HDB activity. HDA1 also shares similarity to three new open reading frames in yeast, designated HOS1, HOS2, and HOS3. We find that both hda1 and rpd3 deletions increase acetylation levels in vivo at all sites examined in both core histones H3 and H4, with rpd3 deletions having a greater impact on histone H4 lysine positions 5 and 12. Surprisingly, both hda1 and rpd3 deletions increase repression at telomeric loci, which resemble heterochromatin with rpd3 having a greater effect. In addition, rpd3 deletions retard full induction of the PHO5 promoter fused to the reporter lacZ. These data demonstrate that histone acetylation state has a role in regulating both heterochromatic silencing and regulated gene expression.
Project description:The yeast PP2A-Cdc55 Serine/Threonine phosphatase regulates transcription under certain conditions. It is required for full activation of the environmental stress response mediated by the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. PP2A-Cdc55 contributes to sustained nuclear accumulation of Msn2 and Msn4 and extended chromatin recruitment under stress conditions such as hyperosmolarity stress. Transcript profiles of Msn2 and Msn4 double mutants are similar to cdc55 and the corresponding triple mutants. This argues for a Msn2/4 specific function of PP2A-Cdc55. Time course of 10 20 and 30 minutes hyperosmolarity treated yeast cells of wild type (W303), msn2msn4, cdc55, msn2msn5cdc55 genetic background.
Project description:Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alkaline pH provokes a stress condition that generates a compensatory reaction. In the present study we examined a possible role for the PKA (protein kinase A) pathway in this response. Phenotypic analysis revealed that mutations that activate the PKA pathway (ira1 ira2, bcy1) tend to cause sensitivity to alkaline pH, whereas its deactivation enhances tolerance to this stress. We observed that alkalinization causes a transient decrease in cAMP, the main regulator of the pathway. Alkaline pH causes rapid nuclear localization of the PKA-regulated Msn2 transcription factor which, together with Msn4, mediates a general stress response by binding with STRE (stress response element) sequences in many promoters. Consequently, a synthetic STRE-LacZ reporter shows a rapid induction in response to alkaline stress. A msn2 msn4 mutant is sensitive to alkaline pH, and transcriptomic analysis reveals that after 10 min of alkaline stress, the expression of many induced genes (47%) depends, at least in part, on the presence of Msn2 and Msn4. Taken together, these results demonstrate that inhibition of the PKA pathway by alkaline pH represents a substantial part of the adaptive response to this kind of stress and that this response involves Msn2/Msn4-mediated genome expression remodelling. However, the relevance of attenuation of PKA in high pH tolerance is probably not restricted to regulation of Msn2 function.
Project description:Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC), termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6) and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA, and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were analyzed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA.
Project description:Cells regulate gene expression using a complex network of signaling pathways, transcription factors and promoters. To gain insight into the structure and function of these networks, we analyzed gene expression in single- and multiple-mutant strains to build a quantitative model of the Hog1 MAPK-dependent osmotic stress response in budding yeast. Our model reveals that the Hog1 and general stress (Msn2/4) pathways interact, at both the signaling and promoter level, to integrate information and create a context-dependent response. This study lays out a path to identifying and characterizing the role of signal integration and processing in other gene regulatory networks.