Transcriptomic analysis of mouse subcutaneous tumor after intratumoral treatment with SLR14 or vehicle
ABSTRACT: We subcutaneously injected 5x105 YUMMER1.7 melanoma into right flank of C57BL/6J mice. 7 days later, the mice were intratumorally treated with 1 mg/kg SLR14 or vehicle every 3 days, for a total of 3 cycles. We observed a significant tumor growth delay in SLR14-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. Overall design: The tumors were intratumorally treated with 1 mg/kg SLR14 or vehicle. After 3 cycles of treatment, tumors were harvested and total RNAs were extraced.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota may influence the response to chemotherapy. We sought to characterize the effects of 5 fluorouracil (5FU) chemotherapy on colon inflammation and functional measures in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to further determine whether gut microbiota can influence this response. 50 C57BL/6 were randomized into four groups; Control?+?Vehicle (n?=?10), Control?+?5FU (n?=?10), AOM/DSS?+?Vehicle (n?=?15), and AOM/DSS?+?5FU (n?=?15). CRC was induced chemically by a single 10?mg/kg injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by two cycles (2% and 1%) of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were then treated with 3 cycles of vehicle or 5FU (cycle 1: 40?mg/kg, cycle 2?+?3: 20?mg/kg). Functional tests (grip strength and run-to-fatigue) were performed prior to 5FU treatment (baseline) and at the completion of the second cycle of 5FU. Following the third 5FU cycle, mice were euthanized and the colon was evaluated for expression of inflammatory genes using RT-qPCR and stool samples were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing. A second experiment used fecal microbiota transplantation from 5FU treated mice to control mice (n?=?10-15/group) to determine whether 5FU associated changes in the microbiota could influence functional measures and colon inflammation. 5FU reduced grip strength (p?<?0.05) and caused a trending decrease in run-to-fatigue performance in cancer mice (p?=?0.06). Select intestinal inflammatory genes were significantly elevated with 5FU treatment and this was further exacerbated with cancer (p?<?0.05). Microbiota analysis revealed increased dissimilarity and alterations in bacterial taxonomy in 5FU and AOM/DSS-treated mice (p?<?0.05). Fecal transplant from 5FU treated mice reduced functional performance (p?<?0.05) and altered select colon inflammatory markers (p?<?0.05). This study provides evidence of an effect of 5FU on inflammatory responses and functional measures in a mouse model of CRC and suggests that gut microbes may play a role in some, but not all, 5FU related perturbations.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Congenital muscular dystrophy is a distinct group of diseases presenting with weakness in infancy or childhood and no current therapy. One form, MDC1A, is the result of laminin alpha-2 deficiency and results in significant weakness, respiratory insufficiency and early death. Modification of apoptosis is one potential pathway for therapy in these patients.<h4>Methods</h4>dy(2J) mice were treated with vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg of omigapil daily via oral gavage over 17.5 weeks. Untreated age matched BL6 mice were used as controls. Functional, behavioral and histological measurements were collected.<h4>Results</h4>dy(2J) mice treated with omigapil showed improved respiratory rates compared to vehicle treated dy(2J) mice (396 to 402 vs. 371 breaths per minute, p<0.03) and similar to control mice. There were no statistical differences in normalized forelimb grip strength between dy(2J) and controls at baseline or after 17.5 weeks and no significant differences seen among the dy(2J) treatment groups. At 30-33 weeks of age, dy(2J) mice treated with 0.1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly more movement time and less rest time compared to vehicle treated. dy(2J) mice showed normal cardiac systolic function throughout the trial. dy(2J) mice had significantly lower hindlimb maximal (p<0.001) and specific force (p<0.002) compared to the control group at the end of the trial. There were no statistically significant differences in maximal or specific force among treatments. dy(2J) mice treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day omigapil showed decreased percent fibrosis in both gastrocnemius (p<0.03) and diaphragm (p<0.001) compared to vehicle, and in diaphragm (p<0.013) when compared to 1 mg/kg/day omigapil treated mice. Omigapil treated dy(2J) mice demonstrated decreased apoptosis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Omigapil therapy (0.1 mg/kg) improved respiratory rate and decreased skeletal and respiratory muscle fibrosis in dy(2J) mice. These results support a putative role for the use of omigapil in laminin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy patients.
Project description:The aim of the project is to analyze the plasma proteomic profile of an animal model of arthritis (Collagen Induced Arthritis; CIA) in response to different treatments. For this, plasma samples from mice under five different treatments were analyzed (N=6 per group): Vehicle, CIA, CIA + Δ9-THCA-A (20 mg / kg), CIA + Δ9-THCA-A (20 mg / kg) + T0070907 (5 mg / kg) and CIA + Δ9-THCA-A (20 mg / kg) + SR141716A (5 mg / kg).
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine if localized delivery of IL-12 encoded by a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector engineered to express IL-12 via a RheoSwitch Therapeutic System® (RTS®) gene switch (Ad-RTS-IL-12) administered intratumorally which is inducibly controlled by the oral activator veledimex is an effective approach for glioma therapy. Mice bearing 5-10-day-old intracranial GL-261 gliomas were intratumorally administered Ad-RTS-mIL-12 in which IL-12 protein expression is tightly controlled by the activator ligand, veledimex. Local tumor viral vector levels concomitant with veledimex levels, IL-12-mRNA expression, local and systemic cytokine expression, tumor and systemic flow cytometry and overall survival were studied. Ad-RTS-mIL-12+veledimex elicited a dose-related increase in tumor IL-12 mRNA and IL-12 protein and discontinuation of veledimex resulted in a return to baseline levels. These changes correlated with local immune and antitumor responses. Veledimex crossed the blood-brain barrier in both orthotopic GL-261 mice and cynomolgus monkeys. We have demonstrated that this therapy induced localized controlled production of IL-12 which correlates with an increase in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) leading to the desired biologic response of tumor growth inhibition and regression. At day 85 (study termination), 65% of the animals that received veledimex at 10 or 30?mg/m2/day were alive and tumor free. In contrast, the median survival for the other groups were: vehicle 23 days, bevacizumab 20 days, temozolomide 33 days and anti-PD-1 37 days. These findings suggest that the controlled intratumoral production of IL-12 induces local immune cell infiltration and improved survival in glioma, thereby demonstrating that this novel regulated immunotherapeutic approach may be an effective form of therapy for glioma.
Project description:Neuropathic pain may affect patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early disease. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-mouse model of MS, chronic alpha lipoic acid (ALA) treatment reduced clinical disease severity, but MS-neuropathic pain was not assessed. Hence, we investigated the pain-relieving efficacy and mode of action of ALA using our optimized relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE mouse model of MS-associated neuropathic pain. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 and adjuvants (Quil A and pertussis toxin) to induce RR-EAE; sham-mice received adjuvants only. RR-EAE mice received subcutaneous ALA (3 or 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or vehicle for 21 days (15-35 d.p.i.; [days postimmunization]); sham-mice received vehicle. Hindpaw hypersensitivity was assessed blinded using von Frey filaments. Following euthanasia (day 35 d.p.i.), lumbar spinal cords were removed for immunohistochemical and molecular biological assessments. Fully developed mechanical allodynia in the bilateral hindpaws of vehicle-treated RR-EAE mice was accompanied by marked CD3(+) T-cell infiltration, microglia activation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, phospho-ERK, a marker of central sensitization in neuropathic pain, was upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn. Importantly, hindpaw hypersensitivity was completely attenuated in RR-EAE mice administered ALA at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) but not 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1). The antiallodynic effect of ALA (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was associated with a marked reduction in the aforementioned spinal dorsal horn markers to match their respective levels in the vehicle-treated sham-mice. Our findings suggest that ALA at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) produced its antiallodynic effects in RR-EAE mice by reducing augmented CD3(+) T-cell infiltration and BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn.
Project description:A tumor-selective non-lytic retroviral replicating vector (RRV), Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), is being investigated in clinical trials in patients with recurrent high grade glioma (rHGG) (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01156584, NCT01470794, NCT01985256). Toca 511 encodes a modified yeast cytosine deaminase (CD), which converts oral prodrug 5-FC into the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) within infected tumor cells. Since 5-FU is a radiosensitizer, we investigated in preclinical models the combination of Toca 511, 5-FC and radiation for treatment of human HGG. U87 and radioresistent U87EGFRvIII cells were infected in vitro with Toca 511 and subsequently irradiated with 0, 3, 6 or 9 Gy. In non-irradiated and irradiated cells, RRV infected >95% of cells by day 21 showing that radiation does not perturb viral spread. In vitro clonogenic survival assays showed significant radiosensitization with 5-FC in RRV-infected U87EGFRvIII cells. For in vivo survival studies, U87EGFRvIII cells (5 x 10) were stereotactically implanted into athymic mouse brain and Toca 511 (10 Transducing Units) was injected intratumorally 4 days later. Mice were treated with a single cycle of intraperitoneal PBS or 5-FC (500 mg/kg) for 5 days from day 10 to 14, with or without irradiation (2 Gy/fr/day; total 10 Gy, or 4 Gy/fr/day; total 20 Gy). Mice treated with 20 Gy and a single cycle of 5-FC showed significantly longer survival compared with the other two groups (p<0.0001) and median survival was >75 days. Next, mice were treated with multiple cycles of PBS or 5-FC (intraperitoneal, 5 days every 2 weeks, 5 cycles) with or without irradiation at the lower dose (total 10 Gy). Mice treated with 10 Gy and 5 cycles of 5-FC showed significantly longer survival (p<0.0001) and median survival was >89 days. These efficacy data support clinical investigation of Toca 511 and 5-FC in combination with radiation in the first-line setting for patients with HGG.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduces urethral resistance and detrusor overactivity in patients with spasticity. However, baclofen's side effects limit its use for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Here, we tested a novel GABAB positive allosteric modulator (PAM) ADX71441 in models of OAB in mice and guinea pigs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Mice were left untreated or given (p.o.) vehicle (1% CMC), ADX71441 (1, 3, 10?mg?kg(-1) ) or oxybutynin (100?mg?kg(-1) ; Experiment 1) or vehicle (1% CMC), baclofen (1, 3, 6?mg?kg(-1) ) or oxybutynin (Experiment 2). Treated mice were then overhydrated with water, challenged with furosemide, before being placed into micturition chambers and monitored for urinary parameters. In anaesthetized guinea pigs, intravesical infusion of acetic acid was used to induce OAB and the effects of ADX71441 (1, 3?mg?kg(-1) ) or baclofen (1?mg?kg(-1) ), administered i.v., on cystometric parameters were monitored. KEY RESULTS: In mice, 10?mg?kg(-1) ADX71441 increased urinary latencies, reduced the number of urinary events and the total and average urinary volumes. In guinea pigs, ADX71441 (1 and 3?mg?kg(-1) ) increased the intercontraction interval (ICI) and bladder capacity (BC), and reduced micturition frequency (MF) compared to vehicle. At 3?mg?kg(-1) ADX71441 completely inhibited the micturition reflex and induced overflow incontinence in five out of 10 animals. Baclofen slightly increased ICI and BC and reduced MF. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that a GABAB PAM has potential as a novel approach for the treatment of OAB.
Project description:The Khakh laboratory used astrocyte selective AAVs expressing Rpl22-HA and hM4Di, a Gi DREADD, in the striatum. Mice recieved either 1 mg/kg CNO or vehicle to compare striatal astrocyte transcriptomes with and without Gi-GPCR signaling activation. Overall design: Whole striata were extraced from 4 adult (P63) C57BL/6J wild-type male mice 2 hours after CNO or vehicle injection in vivo. After homogenization, RNA was purified from (i) cleared lysate as the input and control, and (ii) astrocyte-specific ribosome-associated RNA precipitated via a hemagglutinin (HA) tag.
Project description:AIMS:Mutations in DNA/RNA-binding factor (fused-in-sarcoma) FUS and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). They were reproduced in SOD-1-G93A (SOD-1) and new FUS[1-359]-transgenic (FUS-tg) mice, where inflammation contributes to disease progression. The effects of standard disease therapy and anti-inflammatory treatments were investigated using these mutants. METHODS:FUS-tg mice or controls received either vehicle, or standard ALS treatment riluzole (8 mg/kg/day), or anti-inflammatory drug a selective blocker of cyclooxygenase-2 celecoxib (30 mg/kg/day) for six weeks, or a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of Neuro-Cells (a preparation of 1.39 × 106 mesenchymal and hemopoietic human stem cells, containing 5 × 105 of CD34+ cells), which showed anti-inflammatory properties. SOD-1 mice received i.c.v.-administration of Neuro-Cells or vehicle. RESULTS:All FUS-tg-treated animals displayed less marked reductions in weight gain, food/water intake, and motor deficits than FUS-tg-vehicle-treated mice. Neuro-Cell-treated mutants had reduced muscle atrophy and lumbar motor neuron degeneration. This group but not celecoxib-FUS-tg-treated mice had ameliorated motor performance and lumbar expression of microglial activation marker, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), and glycogen-synthase-kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß). The Neuro-Cells-treated-SOD-1 mice showed better motor functions than vehicle-treated-SOD-1 group. CONCLUSION:The neuropathology in FUS-tg mice is sensitive to standard ALS treatments and Neuro-Cells infusion. The latter improves motor outcomes in two ALS models possibly by suppressing microglial activation.